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California. 




SINCE 1909 



APRIL-MAY— 1965 



VOL. 56 NO. 2 




A CYPRIPEDIUM usually is NOT 



Pboto by Miles Gordon 



GROOMING ORCHIDS • TEST YOUR SPRAY "SPREADERS 1 

DOWN TO EARTH GARDENING 
EXPERT ADVICE ON HOBBY PLANTS 

35 CENTS 




FLORAL EVENTS 



APRIL-MAY, 1965 



SAN DIEGO FLORAL ASSOCIATION PROGRAMS 

Third Tuesday, 8 p.m., Floral Building, Balboa Park 

Chairman — Mrs. Ralph Canter 

Theme for the year: "Beauty in Everyday Living." 

Regular Meeting, April 20, 8 p.m. 

Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr. of La Canada, former President of the Board of Governors 
of the Los Angeles State and County Arboretum, will talk on "Flowering Trees 
and Shrubs for Southern California." He will show colored slides of flowering 
trees to emphasize the Five-year program of Los Angeles Beautiful, which will 
end in 1969, the two-hundredth anniversary of the founding of California. 

Regular Meeting, May 18, 8 p.m. 

Jane Minshall, Chairman of the Southern California chapter, American Associa- 
tion of Landscape Architects, will present an illustrated program on "Gardens of 
Japan." She was sent to Japan to study their gardens and make slides for the 
Landscape Architects. 

Flower Arrangement Classes at the Floral Building, Balboa Park 

For information call Mrs. Roland Hoyt, Chairman, 296-2757 
Creative Arts Group, 10 a.m. - 2 p.m. Second and Fourth Wednesdays. 
Flower Arrangement Demonstration Class, 9:30 a.m. 
Last Monday of each month. 
Instructor: Mrs. J. R. Kirkpatrick. 



1. 

2. 



FLOWER SHOWS 

April 
9-10-11 ORCHID SHOW 

"Artistry in Orchids" 



17-18 ROSE SHOW, 38th 

ANNUAL 
"Melody of Roses" 

21-25 HOUSE & GARDEN 
SHOW 

24-25 CORONADO SPRING 
FLOWER SHOW 

May 
1- 2 IRIS SHOW 

"Festival of Iris" 



20-22 FLOWER SHOW, MEN'S 
GARDEN CLUB 



CONFERENCE BLDG., BALBOA 

PARK 

S.D. County Orchid Society 

CONFERENCE & RECITAL 
BLDGS., BALBOA PARK 
S.D. Rose Society 

EXHIBIT & CONVENTION HALLS 
COMMUNITY CONCOURSE 
S.D. Building Contractors 

SPRECKELS PARK, CORONADO 

Coronado Floral Association 

CONFERENCE BLDG., BALBOA 
PARK 

S.D. -Imperial County Iris Society 

MISSION VALLEY SHOPPING 
CENTER 

Men's Garden Club 



APRIL 

10 



24 



GARDEN TOURS 

11a.m. -4 p.m. HOME AND GARDEN TOUR RANCHO 
SANTA FE GARDEN CLUB. Tickets $3.50, including transportation 
and lunch at Garden Club. 

11 a.m. -5 p.m. LA JOLLA GARDEN TOUR. ST JAMES BY 
THE SEA EPISCOPAL CHURCH. Tickets $2.50, including transpor- 
tation and tea at Beach and Tennis Club. 



CALIFORNIA 
GARDEN 

bi-monthly magazine 



Only $2 a year 

(add $1 for foreign postage) 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 

Balboa Park 

San Diego, Calif. 92101 



Please enter my subscription: 



OTHER SHOWS 

Apr. 2- 4 Spring Flower Show 

Golden Gate Park, Hall of Flowers 
San Francisco Garden Club 

Apr. 24-25 Holiday Flower Show 
Carlsbad High School 

Apr. 24-25 Iris Show 
Mission Inn, Riverside 
American Iris Society 

Apr. 24 First Annual Rose Show 
North Hollywood Women's Club 
San Fernando Valley Rose Society 

Apr. 30-May 1 Escondido Iris Show 
Escondido Shopping Center 

Apr. 30-May 9 Spring Garden & 

Home Show 
Oakland Exposition Building 

May 1- 2 Iris Show 
L.A. County Arboretum, Arcadia 
Southern California Iris Society 

May 8-22 Wild Flower Show 
Community Hall, Julian 

May 14-15 African Violet Show, 
Civic Auditorium, Santa Monica 
National African Violet Society 

Aug. 30 Weed Show 
Community Hall, Julian 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



THE COVER 

Hellas cypripedium, 

grown by Byron Geer. 



Among Our 
Contributors 

Mrs. H. W. Crothers of Vista is 
Awards Coordinator for the Orchid 
Digest Corporation, and also a Judg- 
ing Clerk for the American Orchid 
Society. 

Byron H. Geer, President of the 
San Diego County Orchid Society, has 
been a hobby grower of cypripediums 
for twenty years. He also grows min- 
iature cymbidiums, in fact, all types of 
orchids under both glass and lath. 
This makes his regular monthly orchid 
column in California Garden mag- 
azine so valuable. 

Ellsworth A. O'Bleness is President 
of the Men's Garden Club of San 
Diego and Past President of the San 
Diego Rose Society. He is an Ameri- 
can Rose Society Judge and Consulting 
Rosarian, and has grown roses in the 
San Diego area for over thirty years. 

Margaret M. Lee has formerly con- 
tributed articles on Begonias and their 
care, as illustrated in her lovely patio 
of begonias and ferns. 

Carl F . Truby, President of the Rose 
Society, retired from military service, 
pursues his hobby of gardening by 
increasing his rose garden from sixty 
to two hundred roses. His wife is also 
an ardent rosarian, and with their five 
children, they are a rose loving family. 
He is also a Consulting Rosarian and 
an apprentice Judge. 



County Fair Premiums 

DEL MAR — Exhibitors at the San 
Diego County Fair, June 2 5 -July 5, 
will be shooting for a record $130,852 
in prize money. R. R. Richardson, 
22nd District Agricultural Association 
president, said this amount of cash 
awards will be distributed to winning 
exhibitors at the county fair this year. 

Heading the list is the flower show 
with $27,733 in cash prizes allocated 
for participants. 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



April-May, 1965 



Vol. 56 



No. 2 



CONTENTS 

Jerabek on the Copley Garden Tour Chauncy I. Jerabek 4 

Dracaena Draco to Remain 6 

A Cypripedium Usually is Not Byron H. Geer 8 

Surface Tension in Spray "Spreaders" Dr. Donald A. Wilson ._ 10 

The Ceanothus Section in the 

Santa Barbara Botanical Garden Jacqueline Broughton .. 12 

Specimen Orchid Plants Mrs. H. W. Crothers 13 

Japanese Arrangements, Irises and 

Other Plants Kan Yashiroda 16 

Roses As We See Them Ellsworth A. O'Bleness .. 17 



DEPARTMENTS 

Cover, Garden programs, Shows, 

Tours, Classes, Awards .— - 2 

Contributors 3 

Garden Tours for Members 

Flower Arrangers' Guild of San Diego Mary Jane Hershey 6 

Roland Hoyt Recommends 

Antignon leptopus ... 15 

Fifty Years Ago. City Beautiful - 30 

Garden Club Directory 31 

A Book in the Hand Alice M. Greer 5 



CALENDAR OF CARE 

Down-to-Earth Gardening Ed Ogden 18 

Orchids Byron H. Geer 20 

Fuchsias Morrison W. Doty .... , 22 

Irises ]ames E. Watkins 23 

Roses, and Miniature Roses ..Carl F. Truby 25 

Dahlias Larry Sisk 27 

Camellias William T. De France 28 

Begonias ..Margaret M. Lee 29 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 

Published Bi-Monthly by the SAN DIEGO FLORAL ASSOCIATION 
Floral Association Building, Balboa Park, San Diego, California 92001 

Office Manager— Rosalie F. Garcia Office Hours: M-W-F, 10-3 Phone 232-5762 

All rights reserved. 

Advertising rates on request. 

Editorial Staff Contributing Editors 

Editor .Vera Morgan Chauncy I. Jerabek Alice M. Greer 

Assistant Editor Alice Clark Roland S. Hoyt George La Pointe 

Advertising.... Joan Betts, A. Clark Janet Richards Rosalie F. Garcia 

California Garden is on the list of publications authorized by the San Diego Retail Merchants Association. 
Entered as second-class matter, Dec. 8, 1910 at the Post Office at San Diego, California 
under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



APRIL -MAY, 1965 



COLLECTOR'S GERANIUMS 
ROAD RUNNER RANCH 

Select exciting colors from our 
extensive collection of Lady 
Washington, scented, fancy- 
leaved, dwarf and novelty 
geraniums. Mixed seed also 
available at 2 pkts. for $1.00. 

Send for catalog. 

Edith and Everett Pratt 

2458 CATALINA AVE. 

VISTA, CALIFORNIA 



Jerabek, on the Copley Garden Tour 



RAINFORD 

"lower Shop 




Flowers for all Occasions 
3334 Fi/tJi Ave. 233-7101 



Monday, March 8, 1965 

Dear Miss Greer, 

Yesterday you asked me what I saw 
that impressed me most in the Copley 
garden. On the spur of the moment 
1 just could not decide. After a night 
of rest, I began to evaluate what I 
had seen in the Copley Estate. 

First, in the lathhouse area were 
two Blue gum eucalypti which had 
been trained and pruned to show their 
attractive branch structure. 

Bordering a grassy knoll were 
groupings of Scotch pines, also indi- 
vidual specimens of Torreys and Al- 
eppos and a Coast Redwood. The real 
beauty was that none of them had ever 
been pruned so their lower branches 
rested on the ground. 

Despite their nakedness, the Lom- 
bardy poplars, the purple Beeches, the 
Sweet gums, with their unique seed 
capsules, and the espaliered edible 
Fig on the east wall of the main 
dwelling, certainly were outstanding, 



3f5 3P 49 W 



0Mm 

1 




giving San Diegans a glimpse of what 
deciduous trees look like in colder 
sections of our country. 

Another thing that made the place 
look so homey, was the wide sod 
pathways. Several beds had back- 
grounds of large trees and shrubs, 
while in the foreground were numer- 
ous Raphiolopis Springtime, shrubby 
Echium fastuosum and the deep blue 
and purple Pride of Madiera. Another 
interesting shrub with a creeper habit 
was Ceanothus g rise us horizontalis 
covered with bright blue flowers. Fill- 
ing up the spaces in between were 
many annuals and perennials, such as 
Stock, Snapdragon, Candytuft, Dian- 
thus, Nemesia, Scabiosa, Anemone, 
Cheiranthus (wall flower) Freesia 
Watsonia, Sparaxis, Lxia, African dai- 
sies, Agathea and others. In another 
place, I noticed a patch of several 
kinds of single Petunias that was 
exceptionally showy. 

Near the southwest corner of the 
residence were a number of the com- 
moner Raphiolepsis ovata, the Yeddo 
Hawthorne. Each shrub was perfect, 
each leaf looked as if it had recently 
been polished. Nearby in a small 
patio, there was a bed with all white- 
flowering plants; Camellia, Azalea, 
Cyclamen, Primula polyanthus. Some- 
thing different; a delightful setting. 

In the area of the swimming pool 
were a number of the Irish Yews, a 
columnar form of Taxus baccata called 
Hibeniica. On the east wall was a 
fountain consisting of three foxes, 
probably signifying the name of the 
place "Foxhill." 

From the tiny seedlings in flats in 
the lathhouse to the largest of the 
plant life, everything was immaculate, 
showing that the grounds are in the 
charge of a professional, a lover of 
plants. Perhaps every tree and shrub 
down to the smallest flower was saying 
"We must look our best today; in this 
visiting group will be many critics." 

Our time was limited, so we did not 
get over all the grounds but I think 
what impressed me the most was the 
way the native Rhus integrifolia 
(Lemonade berry) had been blended 
in to conform with the rest of the 
plantings. Some places it was used as 
a border, some intermixed with the 
other shrubbery to form a deep green 
background, with waxy foliage and 
pinkish bloom. 

Sincerely 
Jerry 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



A BOOK IN THE HAND 



by Alice Mary Greer 



Books reviewed in these columns < 
i are available for reference and cir- '• 

culation in the Mary A. Greer Me- 

| mortal Library, Floral Building, Bal- i 

i boa Park. Open to metnbers of the ' 



1 San Diego Floral Association. 



Redwood Empire Wildflower Jew- 
els: Dorothy King Young. Na- 
turegraph Publishers, Healdsburg, 
California, 1964, 81 pages, paper 
bound, $2.95. 

Dorothy King Young, wildflower 
hunter, conservationist, ex-school 
teacher, and resident with her photog- 
rapher-husband on delightful Grandpa 
Charley's Park, possesses the knack 
of turning out a very "personable" 
little booklet. 

Although designed as an aid in 
identifying the most beautiful wild- 
flowers along the redwood coast of 
California and southern Oregon, the 
book is also a guide to the many flower 
jewels found in Southern California. 

It is dedicated — and well does it 
carry out its dedication — to a double 
task; calling attention to the precious 
heritage in our state that is being 
destroyed by the advance of build- 
ings, and urging us to assist in bring- 
ing back these wonderful wildflowers 
into public view for enjoyment and 
conservation under proper safeguards. 

A popular description, happily not 
too scientific, of each of 120 flowers is 
given, along with blank spaces for 
individual record keeping, while its 
delightful little color plates of indi- 
vidual specimens add interest and aid 
in identification. Novice wildflower 
hunters will enjoy the few pages given 
over to elementary general botany in- 
struction, line drawing method. 

All told, this is a worthwhile, well- 
presented little book, one that any 
California wildflower lover or traveler 
would enjoy. 



John lolei 
book # era 



9Hi 

craft shop 

7671 luanhoe Avenue 
Ua folia California 

454-4766 



The Cactaceae: Descriptions and Il- 
lustrations of the Cactus Family: 
N. L. Britton and J. N. Rose: 

Complete in four volumes, bound as 
two. Dover Publications, N. Y. 
1963, 1054 pp. $20.00 per set 
of two volumes. 

From $300.00 to $20.00 is quite a 
jump, is it not? This is the story. 
The original edition (1920) of The 
Cactaceae, published and bound in 
four volumes with magnificent color 
plates, sold for $300.00. (A set is in 
the library of the San Diego Museum 
of Natural History, Balboa Park). A 
reprint with black photographic re- 
productions was put out in 1937. 
Now comes the second reprint, the 
original four volumes bound in two 
and selling for $20.00. One should 
become excited, because the publica- 
tion is within the pocketbook possi- 
bilities of many more people than 
was the original. 

Let me tell you at the outset that 
these are not volumes for one who 
craves armchair ease and light read- 
ing! Each book weighs 5 1 / 4 pounds, 
measures 10% by 7% by iy 2 inches, 
is printed on heavily glazed, thick 
paper, is substantially bound in buff 



buckram, and needs table or desk 
underpinning. This new Dover edi- 
tion, first published in 1963, is an un- 
abriged and unaltered republication 
of the second edition published in 
1937. Classification, nomenclature, 
etc., have not been changed from the 
original 1920 printing, although botan- 
ists have made many changes during 
the years. 

Britton and Rose made the first ex- 
haustive study of the cactus family. 
The results were made known in 
1920. Possibly after forty years their 
study still holds its place as top rank. 
In 1904 the authors embarked upon a 
complete re-examination of the cactus 
family, which for many years had been 
in sad disarray. They devoted 15 years 
in the exhaustive study, visiting vir- 
tually every region of the world where 
cacti were indigenous and examining 
collections and references, public and 
private. 

The authors recognize three major 
classifications or tribes of cacti, under 
which they arrange and describe in 
full detail the 124 genera and 1,235 
species of cactus. For each species 
they provide every bit of information 
that should be discovered: leaves, 
flowers, seed, fruit, spines, stem struc- 
ture, growth habits, geographic dis- 
tribution, economic uses, and relation 
to other species. The authors pro- 
duce first-hand information concern- 
ing 120 species of cacti about which 
nothing was previously known. 

One hundred twenty-five keys make 
identification of species and genera 
easy, as do the 1,200 illustrations, pho- 
tographs, line drawings and sketches. 

Every dedicated student of cacti 
should have this unexcelled work and 
it should be a reference book for 
teachers, naturalists, nature lovers and 
conservationists. The words "exhaus- 
tive, authentic, indispensable" are its 
insignias. 



* * 




^yvrtldtnf in ^r4alr ^JJedian 



1180 Rosecrans 

San Diego 
phone 224-3209 

Virginia Georglon, Hgr. 

OPEN EVENINGS FOR YOUR 
CONVENIENCE 



WINNER OF 165 TROPHIES 



APRIL -MAY, 1965 



FLOWER ARRANGERS' GUILD Of SAN VI EGO 



GOOD NEWS FROM 
TREES UNLIMITED" 



ANNOUNCES 



%e P 



lesence o 



i ty iin 5 



DRACAENA DRACO 



TO REMAIN 




..... ..... 

... , . . .. 

..' . . : : .: . .■■ ■■ .. 







Photograph by Mary Jane Hershey 



ARRANGEMENT BY ISAMU KAWAGUCHI 



The freshness of Spring, the promise of Summer has been captured by the arranger 
in this naturalistic Moribana scene. Newly leafed branches, combined with budding 
hydrangea and daffodil foliage, have been deftly placed in a low green suiban. 
The laced bamboo base, in deep brown color, suggests the earth from which all 
flora springs. The golden color of the daffodils compliments the refreshing green 
foliages and is repeated in the woody branches of the hydrangea. The material is 
so arranged that it gives the effect of sun rays penetrating into a shaded glen, reaching 
and outlining the pale gold hydrangea branches. This line arrangement demonstrates 
the importance of space within the arrangement by creating space between the flowers, 
by placement of the line material, and by eliminating all unnecessary plant material! 



DESCRIPTION BY MARY JANE HERSHEY 



The second project of Trees Un- 
limited, now nearing its successful 
completion, had its origin within the 
walls of the San Diego Floral Asso- 
ciation. Mrs. Esther Scott called the 
Association on a Monday morning to 
get the home address of a well-known 
member. The voice at the clubhouse 
gave the required address and then 
told Mrs. Scott about a Dracaena Draco 
near her home that was showing signs 
of giving up because no one answered 
its pleas for a drink of life-giving 
water. 

The well-known sleuthing abilities 
of Trees Unlimited members located 
the owner of the lot on which the 
tree was the sole remaining resident. 
But when they called to report back 
to the original informant at the Floral 
Building, no one could identify the 
person who had originated the the 
effort. 

A report was made at a meeting of 
Trees Unlimited of the sad plight of 
the dracaena. It was learned that a 
Richfield Service Station was planned 
to be placed on the vacant block, and 
that the tree was apparently doomed. 
However, the project of studying and 
reporting the tree's condition was as- 
signed to Mr. John B. Sage, a young 
landscape architect. He acquainted 
himself with all angles of the case 
and made a masterful report, together 
with site plans, showing the manage- 
ment of Richfield that a slight realign- 
ment of entries and exits to the sta- 
tion could save the tree in its present 
space without sacrificing the efficiency 
of the Service Station. Our latest news 
is that the management of Richfield 
was studying his report with every in- 
dication of a successful ending to an- 
other silent plea for help from a 
doomed giant belonging to an earlier 
era of planned beauty in this San 
Diego residential area. 

And the voice at Floral Association 
clubhouse, which had started the res- 
cue project, was identified as that of 
Mrs. Lester A. Wright, who has the 
satisfaction of knowing that many will 
pass and admire this tree in the fu- 
ture. However, few will realize the 
drama of its preservation for posterity. 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 




^Jke J^an c JJleao 
floral ^>Mc 



lit 



tssocialiovi 

San Diego's Oldest 
and Largest Garden Club 

Founded 1907 — Incorporated 1910 

OFFICERS 

President 

Stanley W. Miller 
Vice-President 

Mrs. Ralph Canter 

Recording Secretary 

Mrs. Ralph Rosenberg 

Corresponding Secretary 

Mrs. Thalia Graham Kelly 

Treasurer 

Mrs. J. O. Crocker 



DIRECTORS 

Term 1962-1965 

Major Edward Little 
Mrs. A. G. Wenzel 

Term 1963-1966 

Mrs. J. Terrell Scott 
Mrs. Eugene Cooper 

Term 1964-1967 

Mrs. Emmett Fowler 
Virgil Schade 



HONORARY LIFE MEMBERS 

Annie Robinson Tedford 
Roland Hoyt 
Chauncy I. Jerabek 
Alice M. Clark 
Alice M. Greer 
Betty Cooper 



PUBLISHERS SINCE 1909 

of 

CALIFORNIA GARDEN MAGAZINE 



GARDEN 
TOURS 
FOR 
MEMBERS 



a variety of ferns and cinerarias 
planted around a small pool. 




Sunday, April 11, 1965 

Garden of Dr. and Mrs. James F. 
Terrell. 4433 Summit Drive La Mesa. 

This is a well established hillside 
garden designed by Mrs. Terrell from 
a planting list by Roland Hoyt. Notice 
particularly the pruning to shape the 
shrubs. There is a vegetable garden 
put in by Dr. Terrell. Vera Thacher 
Terrell has long been a member of the 
Floral Association and also served two 
years as president. 




The next two gardens by land- 
scape architect Harold Curtiss spe- 
cialize in trees, usually used in groups. 
Mr. Curtiss was with the Pasadena 
Park department for many years and 
has been consultant on trees for other 
park departments. 

Sunday, April 11, 1965, 2 to 5 p.m. 

Garden of Mr. and Mrs. Perry De 
Long, 11340 Fuerte Drive, El 
Cajon. 

Coming up a driveway lined with 
gray-green junipers, you face an es- 
paliered wall of flowering pears. The 
view from the front of the house sil- 
houettes a clump of Eucalyptus citvw- 
dora against the distant hills and a 
clump of flowering plums near an in- 
teresting olive tree. Beyond the breeze- 
way, a barbecue terrace borders the 
pool, a group of myoporums, bordered 
by Begonias Richmondii, screens the 
view of nearby houses. Near the form- 
al rose garden, note the Eugenias 
Smithii with lavender berries. Beyond 
this to the left, is a lathhouse with 




Sunday April 11, 1965. 

Garden of Mr. and Mrs. Lee Pack- 
ard, 10010 Country View Road, 
La Mesa. 

Left on Pandora from Fuerte to 
Country View, about one-half block. 
First driveway on left, middle house. 
Look for a group of 3 mailboxes, then 
down a driveway to a white house 
with parking at the back. Beautiful 
sturdy roses in raised brick beds, with 
star jasmine bordering an ice-plant 
covered slope with jacarandas, flower- 
ing plums, poplar and chaparral. The 
lawn is bordered with miniature gar- 
denias and star jasmine used as a 
ground cover. From the front of the 
house, with a wide view of the whole 
valley, an ivy covered slope has a 
planting of camellias and other shrubs 
near the house and chaparrel beyond. 



You 
are invited to join 

^Jke 

S^>avi eJjleao 

-jrtoral ^Ai65oclatlon 

Classification of Memberships: 

Individual $ 3.50 

Family ..$ 5.50 

Sustaining $10.00 

Contributing $25.00 

• Monthly meetings featuring 
outstanding speakers 

• A 500-volume library 
for your use 

• Membership includes sub- 
scription to CALIFORNIA 
GARDEN bi-monthly 
magazine. 

San Diego Floral Association 
Balboa Park, San Diego I, Calif. 

Please enroll me as a. 

member. Enclosed is 



APRIL -MAY, 1965 



A CYPRIPEDIUM 



USUALL Y IS NOT 



by Byron H. Geer 



That which we call a Cypripedium 
by any other name would be as charm- 
ing, and this is a fortunate happen- 
stance since that which we usually call 
a Cypripedium is no such thing. Cy- 
pripediums there are, indeed, but even 
the dedicated Orchid growers can 
count on the fingers of one hand the 
number that they have actually seen 
cultivated in Southern California. Bo- 
tanical nomenclature for the Cypripe- 
dium tribe (Cypripedileae) was a 
completely confused mess for approxi- 
mately one hundred fifty years, and, 
though the matter was firmly and 
definitely resolved about eighty years 
ago, the name Cypripedium was so 
identified with anything even remotely 
resembling a 'ladyslipper orchid' that 
the name has stuck to this day. It is 
applied by Orchidists and commercial 
dealers alike to a spectacular group of 
Orchids closely related to the Cypripe- 
diums, but readily distinguishable from 
them. It is this group, correctly called 
Paphiopedilum, which is commonly 
seen in Orchid collections and shows. 

The story of this confusion dates 
back to the year 1753 and reads like 
the Comedy of Errors. In that year 
Linnaeus, the founder of modern 
botany, named and described certain 
plants of Central Europe and the 
Mediterranean as Cypripediums. The 
plants on which the genus was founded 
were primarily hardy terrestrials, tem- 
perate or sub-tropical in distribution, 
possessed a plicate leaf structure and 
a one-celled ovary within the flower. 
Linnaeus took his name, with a cer- 
tain amount of allowable poetic li- 
cense, from the Greek 'Kypris-Podion,' 
literally a little foot of Venus. His 
description and classifications were 
accurate and they still stand as written, 
as does the name he coined. 



During the next hundred years addi- 
tional botanical material was brought 
into Europe which closely resembled 
the Cypripediums in flower or leaf 
structure or both. These were com- 
monly called Cypripediums until the 
great German botanist Reichenbach 
founded a new genus within the tribe 
which separated out from the original 
group these species similar to the Cy- 
pripediums in flower except for the 
three-celled ovary. To this group he 
gave the name Selenipedium. For the 
next thirty years all was quiet on the 
Ladyslipper front, then in 1886 an- 
other great botanist named Pfitzer set 
up a third genus to encompass the 
tropical species with conduplicate 
leaves. To this genus he assigned the 
name Paphiopedilum, and it is this 
group of species with their hybrids 
that are commonly seen today. Pfitzer 
also moved species formerly in Sel- 
enipedium but having duplicate leaves 
and a rolled in margin to the pouch 
of the flower to a new section called 
Phragmopedilum. It is interesting to 
note in this connection that Dr. Pfitzer 
used as a base for the suffiix on his 
new genus the Greek podilon' mean- 
ing slipper. Only ten years passed be- 
fore still another botanist got into the 
act. The year 1896 brought forth a 
study by R. A. Rolfe in which he re- 
tained the three previous genera and 
established a new genus to take in the 
Phragmopedilum section of Dr. Pfitzer. 
Dr. Rolfe felt, too, that it would be 
logical to end all four established 
genera in the same suffix. Accordingly, 
he changed Pfitzer's Paphiopedilum 
to Paphiopedium. 

It might be conjectured here that 
Dr. Pfitzer was somewhat piqued at 
having his work altered. In any case, 
he set to work and compiled the first 



extensive monograph on the Cypripe- 
dileae. In this monograph he accepted 
the four genera established, but he 
apparently was sold on the 'slipper' 
suffix, for he maintained the four 
genera under the names Cypripedilum, 
Selenipedilum, Paphiopedilum and 
Phragmopedilum. Dr. Pfitzer, like Dr. 
Rolfe before him, must have been 
aware that under sound principles of 
botanical nomenclature the earliest 
given name for a genus must stand. 
With these principles in mind there- 
fore, the confusion resolves itself as 
follows : 
CYPRIPEDIUM • (Linnaeus— T753) 

Fifty species spread over temper- 
ate and tropical zones of the old 
and new world. Primarily hardy 
terrestrials. Distinguished by pli- 
cate leaves and one-celled ovary. 
SELENIPEDIUM • (Reichenbach— 1854) 

Three species, all South Ameri- 
can. Distinguished by plicate 
leaves and three-celled ovary. 
PAPHIOPEDILUM • (Pfitzer — 1886) 

Fifty species from tropical Asia, 
Malayan Archipelago, Indonesia 
and the Philippines. May be ter- 
restrial or epiphytic. Have du- 
plicate leaves and a one-celled 
ovary. 

PHRAGMIPEDIUM • (Rolfe— 1896) 

Twelve species, all South Ameri- 
can. Margin of pouch on flower 
rolls inward. Duplicate leaves 
and a three-celled ovary. 
It is this third group which we grow 
in our gardens and greenhouses and 
know familiarly as 'Cyps.' We call 
them by an incorrect name, but this 
has been going on for one hundred 
or so years and, since I prefer to be 
understood rather than to be correct, 
I shall refer to them as Cypripediums 
in this article. 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



The Cyps are becoming increas- 
ingly popular in the Orchid world, and 
deservedly so. Species have always 
been found in the larger collections, 
but it is only within the last twenty 
years that the large flowered, showy 
hybrids have become available in quan- 
tity at reasonable prices. They are not 
easy to hybridize and even when a 
seed pod hangs on for its full nine to 
eleven months there is often little or 
no viable seed. The pollen does not 
keep, as does the pollen of most other 
Orchids, therefore it is almost a neces- 
sity to achieve mating while plants are 
in flower. To add to these difficulties, 
the Cyps seem to be completely mixed 
up in their genetic make-up. Twenty- 
six chromosomes per reproductive cell 
is the standard diploid number, yet 
many Cyps vary with up to thirty-nine. 
When crossed with species having an 
uneven number of chromosomes, or 
with triploid or tetraploid parents, a 
mismating of the chromosomes gen- 
erally occurs. The end result is steril- 
ity with no seed; partial sterility with 
a small amound of seed which germi- 
nates poorly, or seedlings which in 
themselves grow and bloom quite 
freely but will not hybridize. It is no 
wonder then, that the hybridizing of 
Cyps is a specialty unto itself. With 
the increasing knowledge of genetics, 
and especially the recent techniques of 
chromosome counting, 'planned par- 
enthood' may be expected to eliminate 
many of the current problems. With- 
in a few years Cyps may be a com- 
mon garden flower. 

If this is to be the case, it behooves 
us to know something of their culture 
and a brief botanical description of the 
genus may be in order here. 

PLANT — generally terrestrial with 
short stout rhizomes, no pseudobulbs, 
bearing two rows of alternating leaves. 
LEAVES — narrow and strap-like, 
folded down the center, channeled on 
the upper surface and keeled beneath; 
green, mottled or tessellated, some- 
times stained with dull purple. IN- 
FLORESCENCE — from the base of 
the leaves, erect, nodding or arched. 
SCAPE — frequently hairy, bearing 
from one to several bracts at the base 
of the flowers. FLOWERS— one to 
several, large, showy, waxy or leathery 
in texture. SEPALS — spreading, dor- 
sal sepal free and prominent, ventral 
sepals fused into one and located be- 
hind the lip. PETALS — free, much 
more narrow than the sepals, adorned 
with hairs, spots or warts. LIP — in- 
flated, slipper-shaped, lateral lobes 
small and turned inward, inner sur- 
faces usually pubescent. COLUMN — 
short and terete, usually covered with 




Photo by Miles Gordon 
Corsair cypripedium, grown by Byron Geer. 



erect bristles, bearing two fertile an- 
thers, one on each side behind the 
stigmatic plate, the third anther modi- 
fied into a shield-shaped staminode 
which covers and conceals the column, 
anthers and stigma. POLLEN — granu- 
lose, usually covered with a sticky 
fluid. OVARY— single celled. 

Because of the varying natures of 
the species, generalizations on cultural 
conditions may be made only in the 
broadest sense. Basically, they may be 
divided into two groups: (1) Warm 
growing types with mottled leaves; 
(2) cool growing types with solid 
green leaves. These differences are not 
absolute, however, primarily due to 
complex hybridization between the two 
groups. Both groups will grow quite 
well with daytime temperatures in the 
low eighties; the mottled leaf species 
prefer night temperatures no lower 
than 55 degrees, while the green-leaved 
group will tolerate the low forties. 
Variation in these suggested tempera- 
tures, either to the low or the high 
side will do no damage with the limi- 
tation that such variation must not be 
continued for long periods of time. 
The light requirement for all Cyps 
is among the lowest in the orchid fam- 
ily. Normal culture should provide 
20^-30% full sun, but they will ac- 
cept deep shade and thrive under those 
conditions. The only thing to watch 
for under low light intensity is the 
inception and spread of bacterial rot 



or fungus. The plants have no pseudo- 
bulbs or water retention mechanism, 
consequently they must never be al- 
lowed to dry out. Watering practices 
will depend on weather and the en- 
vironment of the plants, with good 
common sense being the chief govern- 
ing factor. Overhead watering is not 
recommended by the authorities, but 
I have seen no major damage result 
where overhead watering is consis- 
tently done. In all cases a free move- 
ment of air is essential. Stagnant, quiet 
air is to be avoided, but strong drafts 
or blasts of heated air are just as bad. 
Potting mixes for the Cyps are mat- 
ters of personal preference. A grow- 
ing medium should be porous, well 
drained, moisture retentive without 
staying soggy, inexpensive and easy to 
handle. There are many things that 
combine all these requirements in- 
cluding leaf mold, shredded bark, os- 
munda, fibrous loam and sand, and 
Cyps are successfully grown in all of 
these. 

Potting is best done immediately 
after flowering, and plastic pots should 
be used if possible. Cyps seem to re- 
act adversely to the build-up of alka- 
line salts which is inevitable with the 
use of Colorado River water. Root 
tips will reach the edge of a clay pot 
and promptly burn, and the plastic 
pot seems to be the best answer. Di- 
vision into smaller plants may be made 
at the time of repotting, but don't 



APRIL -MAY, 1965 



divide too severely. Allow three 
crowns minimum to a new pot to in- 
sure survival. Smaller divisions may- 
be made, but new growths are sturdier 
and more healthy when there are one 
or two old growths to support them. 
Gently shake or twist the plant to de- 
termine where to divide. In most cases 
the Cyp will separate readily at a na- 
tural division. Pot with the base of 
the leaves just at the top of the com- 
post, leaving no roots exposed. Tamp 
the mix in thoroughly, but do not pack 
hard. Old leaves and dead roots 
should, of course, be removed when 
repotting. There are two schools of 
thought regarding the feeding of Cyps. 
Some growers hold that when grown 
in an organic type compost no food is 
required. I can't disagree with this, 
but I do feed my Cyps the year round 
on the theory that they are never com- 
pletely dormant. Perhaps my growing 
conditions are different, but I find that 
even while they are in flower they are 
also pushing out new growths. If 
there is leaf growth, there must also 
be root growth, and feeding would 
seem to me to be indicated. Good 
judgment dictates a smaller amount of 
fertilizer through the winter months 
and I do accept this premise. Perhaps 
there is sufficient food value in an or- 
ganic compost, but Cyps grow better 
and flower more freely for me when 
I supplement their compost diet. 

Nothing has been said here about 
the blooming habits or seasons of the 
Cyps, and this cannot be omitted. In 
size they may range from two to five 
inches, and even the small ones are a 
spectacular show. They frequently 
have the waxy texture of the Andrea- 
num Anthuriums and some people 
object to them simply because they 
look artificial. Keeping qualities, both 
cut and on the plant are excellent, with 
and average Cyp holding for four to 
six weeks. They combine readily with 
other material and are invariably con- 
versation pieces when used as corsage 
or flower arrangement bases. Colors 
run from the whites and creams 
through yellows, greens, browns and 
maroons with every conceivable com- 
bination of tints and shades in these 
colors. They bloom freely and with 
proper selection of species and hybrids 
may be kept in bloom for twelve 
months of the year. Not many other 
garden plants that can be used also as 
house plants can boast as much. They 
take up little space and give a great 
reward for minimum care as a grow- 
ing number of Cyp enthusiasts can 
attest. Won't you join us? Try one 
or two, but leave room for more. 
You'll want them. 



HOW TO TEST 



SURFACE TENSION in 
SPRAY "SPREADERS" 



by Dr. Donald A. Wilson 



If one observes a drop of water on a waxed surface it is evident that there 
must be some force acting within the surface of the drop tending to pull the 
drop into a spherical shape. Roughly the same sort of force accounts for the 
spherical shape of a soap bubble or an oil droplet suspended in water. This 
force, acting equally in all directions, accounts for the spherical shape — a form 
enclosing the most volume in the least surface. Nature always tries to be 
economical in its physical manifestations (the second law of thermodynamics). 
This force is called surface tension and is defined as a force per unit length. 
In the metric system, as usually expressed, surface tension is measured in 
dynes/centimeter. 

Returning to the drop of water on a waxy surface, for example a rose leaf, 
if there were some way of lowering this surface tension, the drop would have 
less tendency to form a spherical shape. If more and more surface tension 
lowering were attained, the drop would become less and less distinct until that 
surface tension value was reached which would allow the drop to spread freelv 
over the waxy leaf surface or "spread." Many chemicals which have this sur- 
face tension lowering ability are known, and those which have it in high degree 
are known among gardeners as "spreaders." Chemists know them as surface 
active materials. 

In order to obtain the best distribution of spray material over a leaf sur- 
face, it is therefore much more efficient to have just the right amount of 
"spreader" in the spray mixture to cause this spreading phenomenon. However, 
with the addition of excess spreader it is possible to reduce the surface tension 
of the spray mixture to such an extent that penetration of the leaf cellular 
structure results, causing damage of more or less severity. 

Now let's consider the facts of gardening life. Practically every manu- 
facturer of spray material, fungicide, pesticide, foliar nutrient, chlorosis cure, 
leaf polish or whatever, is well aware of the desirability of having his material 
as effective as possible, so these preparations all have spreaders added to the 
formulation if they are not in themselves surface active. In addition, the 
serious gardener knows that spreading is desirable. It therefore often happens 
that the week-end spray application contains (1) a fungicide (2) a pesticide 
(3) trace element chelates and (4) foliar nutrient. Also, since a spreader is 
supposed to be desirable, our gardener throws in a teaspoonful per gallon of a 
kitchen detergent or a commercial "spreader-sticker." This horrible spray mix- 
ture has a lot to be said against it, such as too high osmotic pressure, but also 
very importantly, the resulting surface tension is so low that leaf damage through 
intercellular penetration is bound to result since each product added probably 
has its own "spreader" in the formulation. 

Even if a single spray material at a time is used, one should be very care- 
ful that a "spreader" is needed before adding one. Also, liquid kitchen deter- 
gents are very powerful surface active agents and one should be certain that just 
the right amount is added when needed. 

One way of being sure is to have a method of measuring surface tension 
that is quick, convenient, easy to interpret and sufficiently accurate for home 
gardening. Most methods are so involved and tricky that they are not worth 
discussing in this context. However, one, the drop method, is readily adaptable. 
Since surface tension regulates the size of drops from a dropper, if we were 
to count the drops delivered from a given volume of our spray 'mixture and 
compare this number with the number of drops from an equal volume of a 
standard liquid such as pure water we would have a measure of the surface 
tension of the mixture as compared to that of water. 



JO 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



It is not necessary in this paper to derive the equation so take it on faith 
that the relation is 



Surface Tension 
of Spray Solution 



Surface Tension 
of Water 



Number of Drops 
of Water 

Number of Drops 
of Spray Solution 



or 



T soln. = TH..O 



N H 2 Q 

N soln. 



The surface tension of pure water can be safely assumed to be 7 3 degrees /sm. 
at ordinary room temperature, so this becomes 



T soln. = 



73 N H 2 Q 
N soln. 



The determination itself is easily performed. Get an ordinary medicine 
dropper and fill by pressing the bulb between thumb and forefinger and releas- 
ing with the tip underwater. Do not attempt to get more water than is easily 
visible near the bulb. Mark the position of the meniscus by pasting a small 
straight piece of paper around the dropper as carefully as possible. Now experi- 
ment with water, pulling water up to the same mark and counting the number 
of drops necessary to empty the dropper completely. Do this a number of times 
until you count the same number of drops each time you empty the dropper. 
Always hold the dropper vertically. If you have used a clean dropper and pure 
water, this will establish the number of drops of water to be used in your 
calculation. 

Now do the same with an unknown spray solution and when you are satis- 
fied that you have the right number of drops representing that solution, the 
surface tension of the spray solution can be calculated. For example, a typical 
dropper delivered 21 drops of pure water and 34 drops of a spray solution. 
Dividing 21 by 34 gives 0.62 and 0.62 times 73 gives 45 dynes per cm. for 
the surface tension. 

Always rinse the dropper thoroughly with water when finished, because 
dried dissolved material might affect the next determination. 

Of course the next question is what should the surface tension be for best 
and safest results? Horticultural literature is strangely silent on the matter. 
There is evidently a wide spread of surface tension values used. Rose leaves 
vary greatly in surface wax, and a solution which will spread on one will not 
spread on another. Generally speaking, the waxy, shiny leaf is the healthy one 
and the tender one is that upon which a solution will spread most easily and 
will damage most easily. Therefore, the criterion used here is to have a solu- 
tion which will just tend to spread on a tender leaf and not on a healthy waxy 
leaf. In the experience of this writer, this is a solution having a surface tension 
in the range of 45 to 50 dynes/centimeter. 

Using this method, the following surface tension measurements were made 
to indicate the range one might expect and to show how little "spreader" is 
required to reduce the surface tension of water markedly. 

Material Strength Surface Tension 



Spreader-Sticker (Alkyaryl 


1 tsp/gal 


36 dynes /cm 


Polyoxyl Glycols Alkylary) 


Va ts p/g al 


48 




1/16 tsp/gal 


67 




1/64 tsp/gal 


73 


Liquid Detergent #1 


1 tsp/gal 


34 




l/ 4 tsp/gal 


46 




1/16 tsp/gal 


59 




1/64 tsp/gal 


64 


Liquid Detergent #2 


1 tsp/gal 


33 




1/4 tsp/gal 


46 




1/16 tsp/gal 


61 




1/64 tsp/gal 


64 


Volck - Dormant Strength 


10 tbs/gal 


45 


Terr-o Vite 


2 tbs/gal 


44 


Copper Oleate - Nicotine 






Comm'l. Preparation 


2 tbs/gal 


38 


Acti Dione PM 


2 tbs/gal 


45 




Notice that all by itself I/4 teaspoon- 
ful per gallon of liquid kitchen deter- 
gent or commercial spreader sticker 
will reduce the surface tension of water 
to a level almost below the criteria 
established above (45-50 dynes/cm). 
It should be remembered that lowered 
surface tension is not the only cause of 
spray damage. Certain chemicals in 
themselves are harmful, but intercellu- 
lar penetration will certainly intensify 
harmful chemical action and it is one 
characteristic of spray mixtures over 
which we have a measure of control. 

References 

"Spreader - Stickers/' Dr. Thurmond 
Williamson, American Rose Society 
Magazine, Vol. 15, p. 8, No. 12, 
Dec. 1959. 

"Beware of Spreader-Stickers," Cyn- 
thia Westcott, American Rose So- 
ciety Magazine, Vol. 16, p. 29, No. 
8, Aug. 1961. 

Warning note on p. 27, Vol. 16, No. 
24, Dec. 1962. 



APRIL -MAY, 1965 



LI 



The 

Ceanothus 

Section 



Santa Barbara 
Botanic Garden 



by Jacqueline Broughton 



Ceanothus, in every shade of blue, 
and in all its various shapes and sizes, 
is in full bloom now and is on dis- 
play at the Santa Barbara Botanic 
Garden. This genus of shrubby plants, 
sometimes known as California Lilac, 
produces white to blue and, rarely 
pink, flowers and contains many mem- 
bers of high ornamental value. 

The Ceanothus Section of the Santa 
Barbara Botanic Garden has always 
been a main point of interest. Here, 
paths wind through a variety of flower- 
ing shrubs, Redbud, Nevin Barberry, 
Fremontia, and Gooseberries, and the 
fine collection of Ceanothus from var- 
ious parts of California. Ceanothus 
cyaneus from San Diego County, 
Ceanothus griseus, Carmel Ceanothus, 
from the Monterey Peninsula, Ceano- 
thus jepsonii from Marin and Sonoma 
Counties, and Ceanothus purpureus, 
Hollyleaf Ceanothus from the Napa 
Range, are among a few of the plants 
on display there. 

The season began in early January 
when large specimens of Bigpod 
Ceanothus and its variety with pen- 
dulous branches were covered with 
fragrant white flowers. Now, Green- 
bark Ceanothus bearing large sprays 
of pale blue flowers contrasts with the 
horticultural varieties Concha, Sky 




A branch of Greenbark Ceanothus, Ceanothus spinosus, dis- 
playing the abundant pale blue flowers. Santa Barbara 
Botanic Garden. 



Blue, and Blue Cloud which are deep 
blue in color, and with Coast Ceano- 
thus and Hollyleaf Ceanothus, both 
with lavender flowers. 

Ceanothus is a group of shrubs 
restricted to North America. It con- 
tains about fifty species, most of them 
native to California. They vary in size 
and shape from ground covers such as 
Carmel Creeper, to small trees up to 
twenty-five feet tall such as Catalina 
Ceanothus and Greenbark Ceanothus. 

Blue-flowering shrubs have always 
been of interest to horticulturists be- 
cause of their relative rarity. A white- 
flowered Ceanothus from the east coast 
was introduced into Europe as early 
as 1713, but its blue species did not 
come into cultivation until the 1800's. 
The 19th century plant collectors, 
Douglas, Nuttall, Hartweg, and others 
sent seeds and plant material to Europe 
for introduction into gardens. 

By the early 1900's this group of 
plants began to gain favor in Cali- 
fornia. After its founding the Santa 
Barbara Botanic Garden became a cen- 
ter for the study of Ceanothus. One 



of the world's finest living collections 
is found here, and a major work on 
the subject was published by the Bo- 
tanic Garden in 1942. This, unfortu- 
nately, is now out of print. 

Since that time the Garden has 
worked on the horticulture and propa- 
gation of the group and has found 
improved methods for culturing and 
caring for these plants. In addition 
to the true species, there are also many 
garden hybrids and horticultural selec- 
tions. Ceanothus 'Far Horizons,' de- 
veloped at the Botanic Garden recently, 
is a low-growing, compact plant with 
bright blue flowers and an early bloom- 
ing period. This new variety is now 
available in limited quantity in the 
nursery trade. 

A trip to the Santa Barbara Botanic 
Garden is rewarding at any time of the 
year, but more so in the spring, and 
the Ceanothus Section is not to be 
missed. The Botanic Garden, which is 
located in Mission Canyon one and a 
half miles north of the Old Mission 
Santa Barbara, is open every day from 
8:00 a.m. until sunset. 



12 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



Selecting - Growing - Grooming 



SPECIMEN ORCHID PLANTS 



by Mrs. H. W. Crothers 



The term specimen plant can mean 
different things to different people. 
To the gardener of an estate in Vic- 
toria or Vancouver, B.C., where we 
saw some marvelous "specimens," it 
can mean an evergreen tree clipped 
and shaped over the years to resemble 
an elephant, a ship, a dragon, or any 
other thing the gardener fancies. Or 
it can mean a tree or plant standing 
alone, cared for in such a way as to 
achieve greatest beauty or foliage and 
flower. To each sub-section of gar- 
dening it can mean a special thing as 
it applies to the plant type in which 
the gardener is interested. 

In the Orchid Grower's Manual, 
Williams 7th edition, published in 
1894, is a chapter on growing speci- 
men orchid plants for exhibition. It 
mentions that some grand specimen 
plants had formerly been produced in 
English orchid ranges, and that there 
had been great interest in them, and 
great pride in growing them; but that 
later it became the practice to "make- 
up" a plant by grouping several like 
plants into a container to grow into 
a mass that would be exhibited as a 
specimen plant. Then the author pro- 
ceeds to tell the best ways of produc- 
ing this latter type of plant. Also, he 
says of the shows that "while it is per- 
mitted, of course the making-up in- 
stead of growing of specimens will be 
continued." 

We could find very little in current 
literature concerning specimen plants, 
but the American Orchid Society 
Handbook on judging covers this sub- 
ject briefly as follows: "Specimen 
Plant (in schedule) — a single plant — 
not a made-up plant, exhibiting un- 
usually fine cultures." Now, if you 
think about this, it is not much to go 
on. However, it gives the orchid 
judges a great deal of latitude; which 
is probably a good thing. Their chief 
limitation is that the plant shall be 
all in one piece, and this rules out 
what Williams 7th edition has told 
us about growing specimen plants. 

Now, having found no very usable 



definition of our subject, I am going to 
give a definition of my own. A Speci- 
men Plant should have no blemish on 
it. A plant with dusty or algae-cov- 
ered leaves, or with mold on it, or with 
parts of the plant broken or damaged, 
is not, in my book, a specimen plant. 
The plant must be clean, unbroken, 
un-damaged in any way. It must be 
in flourishing condition, large for its 
kind and for the climate in which it 
was grown, and preferably in bloom. 
I would consider, however, that flowers 
are not necessary; the plant is a speci- 
men whether in bloom or not. If it 
is to be offered for judging, of course, 
it must be in bloom also. This is a 
large order. If plants were measured 
by this yardstick, there would be fewer 
of them offered for this award. 

The reward the orchid judges are 
able to give for such a plant is the 
Certificate of Cultural Merit, com- 
monly called C.C.M. This is not sec- 
ondary to the Award of Merit as some 
suppose. The Award of Merit is given 
to the plant for producing superior 
flowers. The Certificate of Cultural 
Merit is given to the grower for a 
masterpiece of culture. Each award is 
only given if the plant has a score of 
80 points. For the cultural award, 
the plant need not be of the finest 
quality; it need only be grown superla- 
tively. It is a wonderful feeling to 
receive this award, so now let us see 
how to proceed to attain it. 

Many so-called specimen plants are 
shown which in reality are plants gone 
wild in the greenhouse. They are 
over-grown; choking themselves; bat- 
tling for the space, the food, and the 
water that should be provided every 
leaf and root. In many instances, the 
grower thinks it is a great achievement 
that the plant is big; when bigness is 
not the main yardstick. It is an achieve- 
ment to grow them big; but it is more 
of an achievement to grow them big, 
and fine all over, so the grower must 
look for the plant that will lend itself 
to this sort of growing. 

The first requisite of a specimen 



plant is that it grow close-coupled. 
This is, with short spaces between the 
growths. The plant that 'gallops' 
across the pot, breaking one eye at a 
time, and that eye far out from the 
last growth, is not a good subject for 
a specimen. It will take too much 
room, and it will never produce the 
head of bloom required. 

Next, the plant should break mul- 
tiple leads — and flower on them. Some 
plants have a 'habit' of flowering, just 
as some plants refuse to flower. This 
is an inherited factor and some plants 
have it, and some do not. I believe our 
best example of multiple leads was 
the plant of Blc. Caligula 'Magnifica,' 
FCC-RHS that grew eight leads while 
still in an eight inch pot, and flowered 
two flowers on each of them. It was 
a sight to see, even though by today's 
standards, it is not a fine quality 
flower. I have never tried to grow this 
plant to bigness, however, because the 
flower stem is short and the flowering 
habit is to make only two flowers per 
stem. A specimen plant should be more 
floriferous than this. 

The flowers do not have to be the 
best form, though they should be rea- 
sonably good. We have seen some 
very large plants with flowers so poor 
one wondered why the owner kept the 
plant long enough to grow so big. On 
the other hand, at the Honolulu Or- 
chid Show, October 1959, we saw a 
Vanda Mabelmae Kamahele, A.M. 
AOS, that was so well grown that it 
was given a Cultural Certificate at the 
show. This was a real triumph — to 
have a plant so fine, and to grow it 
so well. 

So now let us choose the plant for 
specimen growing. Whatever species 
or hybrid, it should grow close- 
coupled, should break multiple leads 
and flowers on them, and should be 
as good form of its kind as can be 
found, should grow vigorously, and 
should be more floriferous than others 
of its kind. This is the plant that 
will pay for your care. Looking over 
your plants, you will notice an oc- 



APRIL-MAY, 1965 



13 



casional one that fulfills these require- 
ments and begs for special growing. 

Now that you have your plant se- 
lected, it will need constant watching. 
Do not let it wander off over the edge 
of the pot before shifting it to a larger 
container. When the next growth 
would go over the edge, shift the plant 
before that growth comes. Be careful 
of water so as not to rot off the older 
roots, and then shift the plant care- 
fully to retain the root-ball intact. If 
you find that the plant is all root- 
sealed to the inside of the pot, shat- 
ter the pot with a few careful blows 
of a hammer, and then, leaving the 
shattered pot still in place, proceed to 
put the plant into the larger container 
and fill around it with potting ma- 
terial. The old pot pieces will do no 
harm if you have established drainage 
sufficiently by breaking them. It is 
much better not to damage the roots 
by trying to remove them. 

If you lose the older roots, the 
leaves will show it by losing their 
plumpness, and your plant will lose 
its good looks. Whenever a plant 
goes over the edge of the pot you are 
in trouble. Growths will grow at all 
angles, horizontal or crooked. The 
rhizome will get kinks in it, and the 
internode spaces will lengthen. Every- 
thing goes wrong. Catch your plant 
in time, and give it potroom. 

If you should lose a leaf or two at 
the back of the plant, then granting 
that it is already a large plant, cut out 
the entire pseudo-bulb above the 'eyes' 
without damaging the rhizome. The 
chances are that with the added room 
inside the plant, new growths will 
initiate there and fill the hole. A large 
plant can stand some careful surgery 
and be the better for it. I like to re- 
move the leafless bulbs from inside 
the plant. They do not help the looks 
nor do they aid the plant. 

Be careful of water. The larger the 
plant is, the more careful you must 
be. A large plant will get along very 
well, and the older roots continue in 
good health, if you only water at the 
front of the plant, or put water only 
around the edge of the pot, if the 
plant is growing in all directions. 
Also, the larger the pot, the longer the 
intervals between waterings should be. 
This has the added advantage of 
lengthening the time the compost re- 
mains in good condition at the back 
of the plant. A good rule of thumb 
is to touch the clay pot with a wet 
hand. If you 'stick' to it, the pot is 
thoroughly dry. The clay gets very 
thirsty when the pot it dry, and the wet 
hand is a good way to test it. On the 



other side of the coin, do not deprive 
the plant of water to the point of de- 
hydrating it. 

One more thing to watch as the 
specimen plant is growing; the time 
comes when the plant that breaks 
multiple leads will have one lead that 
wants to cross over the rhizome, or 
over another lead. Here again is the 
start of trouble. This is the time to 
take your shears again and do a little 
careful surgery. You can simply cut 
off the offending lead, or you can re- 
move a one- or two-bulb propagation, 
cutting out the offending lead to pre- 
vent tangling of the rhizomes. In the 
end, the plant will more than com- 
pensate for this lost lead, and will 
make other growths in better places. 
Many plants have this tendency to 
tangle, and if allowed to cross and re- 
cross themselves they will in time 
choke themselves into a decline. When 
the plant becomes so tangled, it will 
begin to go down-hill, and there is no 
way to bring it back. You may as well 
forget it was a specimen, and cut it 
into divisions and start over. What 
all this means to the grower is that a 
specimen plant is cared for most par- 
ticularly all the way. A few months 



of neglect and the 'specimen' is not 
a specimen any more. 

When the time comes that your 
plant is starting the many blooms that 
you have been waiting for, and you 
realize that this is the time it is going 
to be especially fine, then you take it 
and give an extra-careful grooming. 
Remove any blemished parts of it such 
as broken leaves, blind sheaths, leaf- 
less pseudo-bulbs, or anything that 
could detract from the plant. Do this 
before the buds are very far advanced 
so that you will not have to be work- 
ing over the plant when there is dan- 
ger of damaging the buds. Wash the 
leaves on both sides so they will be 
clean. Do any tying or supporting of 
growths that seem to be needed, and 
prepare the plant for exhibit. Then 
put it back in its place and wait for 
the flowers to come. You will be for- 
tunate if the flowers all come at one 
time. That is the biggest show. How- 
ever, if some came early and are fad- 
ing before the rest are out, then re- 
move the older ones, for they will de- 
tract from the whole picture. This is 
to be perfection when you show it. 

Now, like your favorite child all 
dressed for a party, you take your 
specimen to show it off ! A proud day ! 




Photo by Miles Gordon 
Minneken miniature cymbidium, grown by Byron Geer. A good 
specimen type with green over bronze color. 



J4 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



ROLAND HOYT 
RECOMMENDS 



ANTIGONON LEPTOPUS 



The folk-names that come of ordin- 
ary people for plants are frequently, 
in fact usually more expressive than 
the coldly exact denomination of the 
botanist. This is surely true from the 
standpoint of sentiment and apprecia- 
tion of aesthetic characters. It has al- 
ways seemed to me much to be re- 
gretted that Standard Plant Names 
insists on repeating as a vernacular 
name, the translation of the botanical 
one where a former does not exist. It 
would appear that the common name 
of a plant might be left to the com- 
mon people, those in gardens and 
elsewhere who work with and love 
the individual. That has been the way 
in the past, but we move more rapidly 
now. After all, we have the scientific 
to designate the plant precisely. Why 
clutter up our lists with an equivalent 
when someone sooner or later will 
arrive at a more fitting and expressive 
term. 

This will usually end up more de- 
scriptive of the thing we see and with 
a feeling that the botantist would in 
all probability have overlooked or 
found unsuitable for his purpose. They 
tell us that botany is a living science, 
subject to growth and change and in 
the horticultural field we know that 
to be true . . . how well we know. So 
here is a bid in the nature of an over- 
ture, a suggestion that we await a 
proper common name for these un- 
touched spinster species until the peo- 
ple find one. If the past is any indica- 
tion, it will be one "indigenous" to 
commonality, a commoner that tells 
the story of the love of humanity for 
nature and its particular parts. 

This blurb comes of the vernacular 
naming of the subject species above. 
These several names compare with the 



scientific dead language meaning of 
"slender stems, grooved and angled." 
This is verity and in order, but a rather 
remote summary of the least visible 
facts about the plant. Over the years, 
this same plant above has found a 
place in the life and language of two 
peoples and from their hearts have 
come various expressive terms, local- 
ized possibly; but set, fixed, acceptable, 
agreeable. Hear these then and know 
your Antigonon as it is seen. . . . Rosa 
de Montana, Love's-chain, Corallita, 
Pink-vine, San Miguelita, Heart-vine 
and even Confederate-vine as it moved 
northward ... all these of the spirit, 
home-bred with simple, very obvious 
meaning. Properly, it should be the 
place of a standard plant study only 
to pick and list the most appropriate 
existing name and place it alongside 
the botanical designation. The scien- 
tific name could serve in other cases 
until a suitable common one turned up. 
Look at any nursery catalogue and note 
how well it will serve. 

Strange it is, that this delightful 
vine, its quality attested by this pleth- 
ora of names, should be so seldom seen 
in California. True, it is from the 
tropics, but high for hardiness and I 
am sure it can be used the length of 
the state. It acts as a typical herbaceous 
perennial from tubers that carry 
through ordinary frost . . . heavier if 
mulched. In Florida and along the 
Gulf Coast, it flowers continuously in 
absence of deep cold. I have seen it 
in Mobile, Alabama covering the front 
of a large house on the street where 
it was especially appropriate and ap- 
pealing with the iron grill work. In 
California, it retires into the bulb over 
winter and doesn't get back into busi- 
ness until late summer next or fall . . . 




Alfred Hottes 

then a pink or rose-colored open spray 
of heart-shaped flowers with a tendril 
at the end of each raceme . . . and 
quite freely although loosely. There 
is a white form found from time to 
time which is much less vigorous. 

This vine wants warmth in both soil 
and exposure, if best production is ex- 
pected. Give it a loamy soil of as much 
depth as may be had. Keep it moist 
while in growth, but dry as may be 
after that has been completed and 
flowering set in. The species is very 
slow to establish for maximum flower- 
ing and more deliberate in coming on 
as a plant. This puts a premium on 
procurement of a well grown speci- 
men, either as a tuber for size or as a 
well-filled container. This is truly a 
vine of gentility, one of good birth and 
breeding for the garden or most any 
place around the home. It is one to be 
treasured over many years, placed well 
in the beginning and protected for a 
long future of service. 



HOUSE AND GARDEN SHOW— COMMUNITY CONCOURSE 



* Fellow asla. author of Ornamental 

Plants for Subtropical Regions. 



Numerous garden and floral dis- 
plays, highlighted by a 30 x 10 foot 
exhibit arranged by the San Diego 
Floral Association, will be on view at 
the House and Garden Show, April 
21-25 at the Community Concourse. 

Mrs. Roland Hoyt, wife of the 
prominent horticulturist and contri- 
buting editor of California Garden, 
has been placed in charge. 

Other area floral shops, patio and 
outdoor masonry suppliers and even 
the Pest Control Operators of Califor- 
nia, Inc. will appear at the House and 
Garden Show. 

And of special new interest to many 
will be the displays set up by the San 
Diego Potters Guild and the Inter- 



national Pipe and Ceramics Company. 
Garden buffs may find some new ideas 
for decorative effects from these ex- 
perts. 

Entertainment will be provided at 
intervals each day of the House and 
Garden Show. O'Toole has billed an 
ice-show troupe to bring to San Diego's 
Community Concourse for the first 
time, a show called "Spice On Ice." 
There is no added charge for visitors 
to see the ice pageant. 

The House and Garden Show is 
sponsored by the San Diego Building 
Contractors Association, in an effort 
to bring new ideas for the house and 
garden to the enterprising homemaker 
and her handyman husband. 



APRIL -MAY, 1965 



15 



NOTES ON 



JAPANESE f LOWER ARRANGEMENTS 



IRISES, ROSES AND CYMBIDIUMS 



by Kan Yashiroda 

Tonosho-cho, Kagawa-ken, Japan 



Irises are a favorite material for 
Japanese flower arrangers old and new. 
Even in a workaday plantsman's li- 
brary, which is mine, the flower ar- 
ranging books published in the eigh- 
teenth and nineteenth centuries dealt 
exclusively with iris depicted in naive 
but vivid wood-cut prints, are found 
not less than ten. Once upon a time 
when the American flower arrangers 
in Japanese styles were not yet advent 
to Japan, so to speak, I had been a 
critic to a leading Japanese flower 
arranging magazine and had naturally 
come to receive numerous photographs 
of flower arranging. In those days. 
Japanese traditional styles were exclu- 
sive in every school, and no man had 
ever dreamt of the flood of the modern 
abstract flower arrangements seen in 
the shows, classes and the magazines 
nowadays. Two or so weeks ago, a 
noted flower arranger from Osaka 
called on me and asked for materials 
for his flower arranging show. The 
material he had selected at my Ac- 
climatization Garden was 8 or 9 dried, 
fallen Washingtonia palm leaves with 
stalks, dried Livistonia palm leaves, 
dried Cocos (Butia) palm's spathes, 
half-decaying Phoenix leaf-stalks and 
only living thing he had picked up was 
a few sprays of Smilax (Asparagus 
asparagoides). It shows you how ab- 
stract is fashionable. So prevailed that 
I had been come to so many whom 
do not know even the meaning of the 
word 'abstract' itself and to find so 
many 'sheeps' whom make me wonder 
why Japan is being a top buyer of 
wools in Australia ! I recall that when 
I had contributed to a magazine pub- 
lished by Ikenobo School an article 
entitled 'Flower Arranging without 
Base' in 1946, I had heard some ru- 
mors about it that I am talking non- 
sense. By the way, it is not my new 
idea, but the attempts are known in 
history. Anyhow, abstract arrange- 
ment spreads as a fever but recently 
the old belittled ways are coming to 
have a new understanding. 




X 



\ 



Photo by Kan Yashiroda, Jap 



an. 



The excellent arrangement with 
camellia and wisteria vine shown in 
the February-March number of the 
California Garden gave me a rejoice 
and encouraged me to show you some 
from my old collection of pictures. 
[Sorry, could use only one. Ed.} 

The informal design, especially in 
arranging the leaves, with one flower 
and eleven leaves of Japanese iris 
should be better settled with the con- 
tainer if the leaves were massed more 
lightly towards the base. However, 
the pleaching of leaves at close to the 
base is fine and need a skill to do so. 



The second arrangement has used a 
shallow basin, and placed with the 
irises with two flowers and water lily 
with three flowers and some seven 
leaves. The iris used is not the uni- 
versally popular Iris Kaempferi, but 
I. laevigata. The latter has better 
virtues than the former in arranging. 
The leaves are more sturdy, tidy in 
growth and constitution and twice 
wider in breadth. These have not the 
prominent middle vein seen in the 
former. Generally the flowers are not 
so fragile and have a peculiar grace. 
The arranger was an eminent figure 
and we had been expecting of him a 
new field of arranging. But alas he has 
passed away. 

The arrangement with orchid and 
adiantum base is in a popular mori- 
hana style and there is no ambitious 
effort tried seen. It is a lovely one. To 
tell the truth, while I was the critic, I 
used to use my sharp tongue as some 
others did. I presume here it gives no 
good. Let the arrangements tell them- 
selves through the readers' imagina- 
tion and judgment. 

Irises 

It was told that the April-May num- 
ber is to be a special on irises, orchids, 
roses. We have many native ones. 
But the so-called Japanese iris (Iris 
Kaempferi) in numerous garden var- 
ieties is only popularly known beyond 
the sea. 

Roses 

Our Rosa multiflora and R. Wich- 
uraiana has or had been used in pro- 
ducing fine rambling garden roses, and 
now these are rather items for the 
members of Hips-and-Thorns. I guess 
some members are enjoying our Rosa 
rugosa that had derived some nice 
garden roses, not only as a garden 
plant, but its hips in their recipe. It 
had also enough thorns to remind a 
maxim. To the garden owners in warm 
climate such as yours, our R. nippon- 
ensis should be a hopeless one; even 
to garden lovers of Japan's peopled 
area, it is difficult to keep over a sum- 
mer; still it is a tempting one to rock 
garden enthusiasts. 

Cymbidiums 
Our Cymbidium virescens, C. nip- 
ponicum, C. Kanran and some other 
species are specialist's items to other 
than we Japanese. Our Calanthes are 
finer as garden flower. I fear there is 
whispering that it need not go so 
further on, and those may be called 
'junks.' If you like a luscious, color- 
ful flower or expected to be so in an 
orchid, you may say so and you will 
rave over it. I do not. 



16 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



Raded 



Life is no bed of roses but I have 
learned that a bed of roses will do 
much toward making life enjoyable. 



by Ellsworth A. O'Bleness 



This article is not intended to be a 
scientific thesis but rather a friendly 
visit; as my dear old German Grand- 
mother used to say, "come in and set 
a spell and visit, it costs nothing." 

First, plant selection is very im- 
portant. You must buy the best roses 
you can find from your nurseryman; 
of the variety you desire and roses that 
grow well in your particular locality. 
I recommend visiting an established 
ro3e garden in your locality and ob- 
serving the roses under growing con- 
ditions. All roses do not perform 
the same, they vary under different 
growing conditions. 

There are endless combinations 
which can be worked out when land- 
scaping with roses to give harmoniz- 
ing color interest. What a pleasing 
effect could be obtained by having a 
circular bed of roses around the corner 
of a white house. For edging along 
walkways and paths, try a border of 
floribundas such as Ivory Fashion, The 
Fairy, Wildfire, Winifred Coulter and 
many others. The patio or backyard 
garden should be planned carefully, 
using the tall-growing grandiflora 
roses in back, hybrid teas next and the 
small low-growing floribundas in the 
front rows. This arrangement gives 
a pleasing effect and a good display 
of color. Climbing roses are of spe- 
cial value if one wishes to minimize 
and soften the unpleasant lines of a 
fence or an odd corner in the yard. 

Many rose growers are often disap- 
pointed with the growth and produc- 
tion of their plants. They often do 
not realize that this is due to the lack 
of certain plant food elements in the 
soil. Roses, as with all living things 
need balanced food supplements con- 
taining nitrogen, phosphorus and po- 
tassium in combination with trace ele- 
ments consisting of manganese, copper, 
zinc, iron and other minor elements. 
We feed our roses approximately two 
cups of granular food per bush per 
month during the growing season. It 
is also wise to alternate with a liquid 
food solution. When using the liquid 
solutions be sure to use as recommend- 
ed on the container. Remember, roses 



are heavy feeders and that it takes con- 
sistent feeding to produce good roses. 

Steer manure is low in nitrogen 
but is rich in bacteria and several of 
the minor trace elements that are bene- 
ficial in the production of good bushes 
and blooms. It is an excellent soil 
conditioner, breaking up heavy clay 
soils and giving body to light sandy 
soils and makes a good mulch for 
rose beds. As you have probably 
surmised, manure by itself is not 
enough to feed your plants — you must 
use a good rose food in addition. 

Roses need a well drained soil for 
the best growth habits. Soil condi- 
tions which are conducive to the 
movement of plant nutrients into the 
root areas will greatly enhance the 
growth of the rose. Poorly drained 
soils have a low oxygen content. This 
could account for the insignificant 
growth of a rose planted in poorly 
drained soil. Drainage may be im- 
proved by digging the planting hole 
three feet deep; then put in six inches 
of coarse gravel, mix 25% fine sand 
with the remaining soil prior to plant- 
ing your rose bush. A deeply rooted 
plant will benefit from the additional 
soil area from which it can obtain 
plant nutrients and moisture. 

Spraying of roses for various pests 
and mildew is a very controversial sub- 
ject; so I will be very general. A word 
of caution when using any liquid 
sprays — read the directions on the con- 
tainer and follow them as outlined. 
I suggest you start easy on the recom- 
mended solution mixture, perhaps one 
half of the amount called for, increas- 
ing gradually to the amount that will 
accomplish the task at hand. Always 
water the day prior to spraying the 
plants. It is desirable to spray in the 
early morning to prevent possible foli- 
age damage. There are many sprays 
that serve well when mixed together 
to combat insects and mildew in one 
spraying operation. A complete cov- 
erage of the foliage, top and under- 
side is important. Keep all sprays and 
poisons where children cannot get 
their hands on them. 



We live in the Ocean Beach area 
about four blocks from the ocean; so 
mildew is our biggest problem. One 
of the ways to combat mildew is to 
buy mildew-resistant rose bushes. We 
have success with the following: 
Queen Elizabeth, Peace, Angel Wings, 
Montezuma, Tom Tom, El Capitan, 
Eiffel Tower, First Love, Royal High- 
ness, Ben Hur, Columbus Queen and 
many others but these are some of the 
best in our area. 

As soon as your rose bush is well 
established never dig or hoe around 
it within two feet of the main stem. 
Most of the feeder roots are within 
the top two inches of the soil surface 
and you can destroy them, thereby 
starving the rose. If weeds must be 
removed, water the ground thoroughly 
and then pull the weeds by hand. To 
get down on your prayer bones might 
reduce some of those excess waist lines 
and besides you get a new perspective 
of the rose bush from the ground up. 

Watering the rose is most impor- 
tant. Water conducts the food solu- 
tions into the root area making it 
available for plant consumption. In 
a light sandy soil it may be necessary 
to water once a week or in hot weather, 
oftener, perhaps twice a week may 
be required. In heavy soil conditions, 
water will not be required quite this 
often. Roses do not like going to bed 
with wet feet. If water tends to stand 
around the plants too long I would 
suggest moving them to raised beds 
or improve the drainage where they 
are located. Roses should always be 
watered in the morning, if possible. 

Mulching is a satisfactory method 
of saving water and keeping down 
weed growth; it helps to retain soil 
moisture thereby keeping the soil cool. 
There are many good mulching ma- 
terials we have used with success; a 
few of which are: bark, steer manure, 
and redwood shavings. These are put 
on about four inches deep throughout 
the garden, early in the spring. 

Startling as it may seem after all 
the foregoing comments, it is almost 
impossible to kill a rose bush. The 
human pest is its worst enemy. 



APRIL -MAY. 1965 



17 



APRIL — MAY 



Calendar of Care 




b\j ob 0(jc)en 



Springtime truly is with us, re- 
vitalizing both garden and gardener — 
masses of color in flower beds, blos- 
soms and fragrance from flowering 
trees and shrubs, new life and growth 
for tropicals. And a corresponding 
awakening of the gardeners' spirit. 

In beach areas, gardeners are mak- 
ing their last plantings of cool- 
weather annuals such as Iceland 
poppies, stock, snapdragons and cal- 
endulas — and more adventuresome 
souls are having good luck with some 
of these throughout the year in cool 
beach towns. Those of the rest of 
us with foresight should now be inter- 
planting mature spring flowers with 
first plantings of summer and fall 
varieties. Some suggestions for sunny 
beds include zinnias and bedding 
dahlias where there is good air circula- 
tion; cosmos, asters, dwarf phlox, 
marigolds, the year-round lobelia and 
petunias, African daisies, portulaca, 
cockscomb, ageratum and scabiosa. 
Shade plantings should include im- 
patiens, bedding begonias, mimulus, 
coleus and red salvia (which does well 
also in full sun in most areas). If 
you've procrastinated, as most people 
do, you'll have to set out your peren- 
nials from quart or gallon cans for 
bloom this season — or plant little ones 
with next year in mind. These include 
Shasta daisies, coral bells, delphinium, 
columbine, marguerites, penstemon, 
campanula, gerberas and gaillardias. 
And there are always the masses of 
color provided by nierembergia, alys- 
sum, nasturtiums, arctotis and coreop- 
sis, Shirley poppies and Virginian 
stock, in bedding plants or from seed. 

The gerberas mentioned above — 
commonly known as Transvaal Daisies, 



Gerberia jamesonii — are well worth 
singling out for recommendation to 
any gardeners not familiar with this 
rewarding performer. The consensus 
among gardeners and nurserymen is 
that the gerbera is possibly the most 
satisfactory of all flowers from our 
area: it's almost everblooming, prac- 
tically free of pests and diseases, the 
cut blossoms are superb indoors (it 
has been called the aristocrat of all 
daisies), especially in the new duplex 
and double strains, and they are easily 
grown in our region following a few 
special tips. Plants may be purchased 
in bloom in cans or pots, but the most 
economical method is to buy root di- 
visions of the type desired. The plant- 
ing area may be either full or part 
sun near the coast or with filtered 
shade in hot inland regions; soil 
should be given extra attention in 
preparation with humus and bonemeal, 
to a depth of at least 12"; the roots 
should be spread as one plants a bare- 
root rose, and soil filled in to a point 
that leaves the woody crown exposed 
to avoid crown rot; and with good, 
uniform watering and feeding each 
clump will produce dozens of blos- 
soms through the year. The colors 
range through white, shell pink, 
peach, pink, salmon, tangerine, orange, 
Oriental red, scarlet, rose and magenta. 
While this is the season for most 
exhuberant growth of plants, we must 
sadly point out that this is also the 
season for rapid growth and reproduc- 
tion of the myriad insects and pests 
that subsist on our flowers and plants. 
And Spring seems to encourage their 
appetites. Fungus diseases, too, be- 
come an increasing problem at this 



time. So we urge that pest and disease 
control measures be followed relig- 
iously at this time, among them the 
following : 

Control of ants (who are themselves 
harmless to plants) using Chlordane 
or Dieldrin, so that the ants will not 
carry aphids, mealybugs and scale in- 
sects from plant to plant — dust or 
spray around the perimeter of your 
grounds, the foundation of your house, 
and criss-cross through and around 
planting beds, sidewalks and other 
areas; preventive applications of in- 
secticides and fungicides to lawns to 
avoid damage by turf fungii and cut- 
worms and lawn moth larvae; general 
clean-up spray with a mutli-purpose 
insecticide to get existing varmints, 
and leave a residue for succeeding 
generations; a saturation spray of 
plants and their areas where fungus 
complaints may arise, using Captan 
with its preventive (not curative) 
properties and low cost; conduct of a 
program of trapping, gassing or poi- 
soning of gophers and ground squir- 
rels, including encroachment on the 
vacant lot next door; examination for 
possible removal of plants infected 
with incurable bacterial and viral 
blights; fumigation of soils infested 
with nematode or soil mealybug; and 
related precautions. And then follow 
up through the season with spot treat- 
ments as the need is evinced. 

Many of our readers may have been 
informed of a new systemic insecti- 
cide, Cygon, in the excellent columns 
on Rose gardening in earlier issues. 
Cygon has just about freed rosarians 
of their insect problems. The insecti- 



18 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



cide is absorbed into the tissues of the 
rose bush and the sap itself becomes 
an insecticide solution, giving aphids 
and thrip and similar pests a fatal 
stomach-ache. Nurserymen have been 
experimenting with Cygon since it ap- 
peared on the market to determine its 
usefulness in the broad range of 
garden plants, and it is hoped the 
County Farm Adviser's offices will 
publish results this year for the home 
gardener to follow. Cygon follows 
no set pattern in its toxicity: rosarians 
and orchid growers find the material 
effective and harmless to their quite 
different plants; most viburnums and 
hollies are killed outright; some species 
of guava are killed or defoliated, 
others are unharmed; and rubber trees 
tolerate the material when growing in 
the ground, but not if in a tub or pot. 
Your nurseryman probably stocks Cy- 
gon, and it may be the answer to a 
difficult problem of pest eradication — 
ask him. 

A relatively new pest becoming 
more and more widespread in Southern 
California is the foliar nematode. So 
far this form of nematode has been 
found primarily in the leaf and stem 
tissues of ferns and philodendrons and 
various indoor potted foliage plants 
of tropical origin. Typical symptoms 
are twisted, gnarled, dwarfed foliage, 
such as might be caused by overfeed- 
ing but without the burnt tissues nor- 
mally evident in fertilizer burn. The 
only control is through a systemic 
material such as the Cygon mentioned 
above, as normal insecticides cannot 
penetrate down into plant tissues 
where foliar nematode lives. Incident- 
ally, this nematode is a perfect illus- 
tration of the value of California's 
excellent plant quarantine and insect 
control system — Florida and Hawaii 
are unfortunate hosts to hundreds up- 
on hundreds of pests and diseases 
we're not bothered with due to the 
rigid control exercised over importa- 



tion of plants. So, if you should get 
caught trying to smuggle in a speci- 
men of rare tropical returning from 
Hawaii, don't curse 'em, thank 'em. 

As of this writing our areas have 
received less than half our "normal" 
rain fall, so it's important that dry- 
season watering practices are followed 
(adjusted to lower requirements and 
soil temperatures of the period), and 
especially that a program of leaching 
be established. Seasons that give us 
12" to 15" of rain do a good job of 
leaching the soil of accumulations of 
alkaline salts — but half that amount 
just concentrates the salts in the upper 
foot of soil. Starting now, and prob- 
ably 2 or 3 times more until next rainy 
season, make the effort to apply up 
to 6" of irrigation water over your 
garden areas, slow enough to penetrate 
deeply, and leach out the soil to a 
depth of several feet. 

Owners of dichondra lawns can 
take heart in the multiplicity of prod- 
ucts newly on the market designed to 
make dichondra maintenance easier 
and more foolproof. The latest prod- 
uct, available in a variety of "weed 
and feed" preparations under different 
brand names, is Enide. Enide is effec- 
tive in the control and elimination of 
weed grasses — even Bermuda — in di- 
chondra lawns, and gets a few of the 
broad-leaf weeds. Coupled with Scott's 
product, Bonus, which eradicates al- 
most all of the broadleaf weeds, con- 
trol of weeds in dichondra now is a 
simple task. Scott's is said to be bring- 
ing out a combination product both 
for grasses and broad-leaf weeds. And 
several products, separately or in com- 
bination with fertilizers, are doing an 
increasingly good job on fungus and 
insect control. Still no push-buttons. 
A reminder that the San Diego 
County Fair is coming up sooner than 
we think. Make plans to enjoy it, 
either as participant or spectator. 

ED OGDEN 



VISIT OUR NEW 

SHORELINE NURSERY 

Ed Ogden, Mgr. 

Browse among the most extensive and varied stock 
of plant materials in Southern California. 

Relax in our FUCHSIA HOUSE — 

Enjoy the hospitality of our COFFEE BAR — 

955 First St. (Hwy. 101) Encinitas 753-2933 and 753-1196 



PEOPLE 
WHO KNOW 



Use 



ARAGRO 

10-5-5 

Blended with Deodorized 
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ALL PURPOSE 
LIQUID FERTILIZER 

For LAWNS— DICONDRA 
SHRUBS— FLOWERS 
VEGETABLES— FRUITS 



FULL BLOOM 
AHEAD 



Use 



ARAGRO 

4-1 0-8 

Blended with Deodorized 
Organic Fish Concentrate 

Specially formulated for 

LARGE FLOWERS 
MORE FRUIT FLAVOR 



WHEN 

NATURE NEEDS 

A HELPING HAND 

— and She Usually Does 



FEED YOUR 
FUCHSIAS — AZALEAS 
LAWNS — DICONDRA 
AND AFRICAN VIOLETS 

ARAGRO 

FISH EMULSION 




APRIL -MAY, 1965 



19 




Orchids 



by Byron Geer 

President, San Diego County Orchid Society 



EXQUISITE 

BLOOMING PLANTS AT 

GARDEN CENTER 
454-424 1 

7555 EADS AVENUE • LA JOLLA 



758 

Hillside Drive 



Overlooking La Jolla Shores, Hillside 
Nursery is Just up the hill from Torrey 
Pines Road, or down the hill from Mt. 
Soledad. Whichever approach you take, 
you'll find a WONDERLAND OF PLANTS— 
rare begonias, philodendrons, tropicals, 
fine house plants — a wide variety of nursery 
stock, always at a peak of perfection. 

Corey Hogewoning, Prop. 



Send Your Greetings 
by 

THE BAMBOO TREE 
Florists 




5029 Newport Ave. 222-0589 
Ocean Beach 

Flowers • Gifts • Oriental Imports 

Accessories for 
Ikebana and Bonsai 



Comes April and the nineteenth 
annual Orchid Show in Balboa Park. 
Every grower that I know is anxiously 
hunting spikes and figuring the time 
needed to get his plants into best con- 
dition for exhibition. Cymbidiums in 
general are later than usual this year, 
and this portends an outstanding array 
of material for display. We are past 
the prime season for Cypripediums, 
but there will still be enough to catch 
the eye, and April should be a good 
time to pick up the Spring surge of 
Cattleyas. All in all, the Orchid So- 
ciety hopes to present the biggest and 
best show ever, and if you remember 
shows from the previous years you 
will realize that this is a large order. 
Everyone who grows Orchids is en- 
couraged to exhibit, and if you have 
but a single plant of which you are 
proud, bring it along and let everyone 
else enjoy it for a few days. 

It's already too late to do anything 
about culture for plants that you may 
wish to show, but you'll want to dis- 
play them at their best advantage and 
a tip may be in order. Most important 
of all is a good clean-up operation. 
Trim off dry sheaths and dead foliage. 
They don't add anything to the plant, 
and they do take the eye away from 
the bloom. Scrape any salt deposit 
from the outside of the pot and 
sponge off the moss and algae with 
warm water. Using a soft cloth and 
warm water, wipe down the leaves 
and bulbs, both top and underside. 
The plant will look much better even 
to you, and these are all things that 
are taken into account in competitive 



judging. Nothing causes the judges 
and the general public to pass by a 
plant quicker than one which looks as 
if the beautiful bloom must be an 
accident since the plant obviously has 
had no care. Stake the flowers so that 
they look up at you. Shaping with 
soft cotton is not permitted, but there 
is no objection whatever to support- 
ing the pseudo-bulbs and blossom so 
that they present a pleasing appear- 
ance. And for appearance sake, it 
might be well to add a light top dress- 
ing of new potting mix to the sur- 
face of the pot. 

Show or no show, the active grow- 
ing season for all genera is upon us 
and we should get our plants into 
maximum growing condition as soon 
as possible. The Cattleyas should be 
pushing out new growths and roots, 
and this is the best time to divide 
and repot if necessary. They respond 
quite well to new potting mix if you 
catch them just as the new roots are 
appearing. If dividing, be careful not 
to overdo it. Three healthy, leaved 
bulbs are a must to each division, and 
four are preferable. If divided too 
small, the plant may recover but it will 
take several years and the chances 
are that it will give up and not even 
try to grow. Better two good bloom- 
ing divisions than four that take up 
space for three to four years with no 
flower production. No attempt will 
be made here to advise proper potting 
techniques. If you don't know how, 
take your plant to a reputable Orchid 
nursery or consult a friend who does 



Nineteenth Annual 



ORCHID SHOW 



"Artistry in Orchids" 

SAN DIEGO ORCHID SOCIETY, Inc 

CONFERENCE HALL, BALBOA PARK 

Preview — Friday, April 9, 7 to 10 p.m. Open to the public 
Saturday, April 10, 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. 
Sunday, April 11,10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. 

Admission $1.00 No charge for children under 12, with adults 



20 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



a good job of growing. Not that there 
are any secrets in the repotting of 
Orchids, but a certain amount of 
'know how' is necessary. This is some- 
thing that you can easily learn to do 
for yourself, but get expert instruc- 
tion before you tackle it. Otherwise, 
you stand a good chance of doing per- 
manent and irrevocable damage to your 
plant. The same advice holds true for 
potting mixtures. Any number of per- 
sons have brought Cattleyas in to me 
with the statement that the plant 
'doesn't grow and doesn't bloom. It 
just sits there and sulks.' One look at 
the material in which it is potted fre- 
quently explains why. Cattleyas simply 
will not be happy in soil, leaf mold, 
peat or any likely combination of the 
three. They want a loose, porous me- 
dium, one that retains moisture but 
that drains excess water almost imme- 
diately. As in the case of Cymbidiums, 
there are as many potting mixes as 
there are potters, but the most suc- 
cessful mix for me has been one-third 
each of medium grade fir bark, hapuu 
fiber and Miracle redwood bark. This 
mixture may not be the thing for 
you, but it should be an excellent point 
of departure for you to develop one 
suited to your own growing conditions. 
At the risk of being repetitious, it is 
worth emphasizing here that no one's 
growing methods and conditions are 
like yours. Even your next door 
neighbor has different humidity, light 
and exposure. Don't slavishly follow 
the rules laid down by someone else if 
your plants are not responding satis- 
factorily. It's interesting to note in 
connection with horticulture in gen- 
eral that those people who seem to 
have green thumbs up to the elbows 
always seem to be plenteously en- 
dowed with gray matter, too. 

The Cypripediums (or Paphiopedi- 
lums, if you are a purist) are due for 
a little attention after blooming. The 
great show usually takes place De- 
cember to March, but the late ones 
will still be tagging along. Resume 
feeding if you have not already done 
so. High nitrogen for growth, of 
course, but don't forget that they need 
all the trace elements too. This means 
an organic food such as fish emulsion 
with every second feeding. We get 
so wrapped up in the virtues of Nitro- 



gen, Phosphorous and Potash that we 
are apt to forget that they are not the 
be-all and end-all of a good feeding 
program. Contradictory as it may 
sound, plants can get hungry even 
though they can be considered well 
fed. Normally the Orchids are grown 
in completely unnatural potting mixes, 
and the only food they get is that 
which is given them. To make a 
simple analogy, man's basic foods are 
proteins, fats and carbohydrates, but 
man would be extinct in short order 
if he tried to live on a pure chemically 
synthesized diet of these three. Apart 
from food, remember the importance 
of water and light to the Cyps. Never 
under any circumstances let them dry 
out completely, since they have no 
built-in mechanism for the storage or 
retention of water. And keep a wary 
eye on the northbound sun. About 
30-40% light should be ample. 

As for the Cymbidiums, we are at 
the height of the blooming season and 
you know by now whether your care 
during May through September of 
last year was to their liking. What 
you did in those summer months prob- 
ably had more to do with your bloom 
spikes or lack of them than you real- 
ize. If they were hungry or thirsty 
for any prolonged length of time they 
didn't have enough reserve energy to 
put out flowers. Plants that are pot 
bound or crowded should be repot- 
ted at once. You are already late, 
since the preferred time for repotting 
is January through March. Cymbid- 
iums that are repotted early have a 
chance to develop good, hard heavy 
growths and ordinarily will still bloom 
the following year. Your chances of 
bloom diminish in direct proportion 
to the procrastination in repotting. 
And don't let anyone tell you that 
Cymbidiums like to be pot bound 
to the point of bursting the pots. 
They must have room for growths to 
develop and ripen and must have 
room for new root structure on the 
new growths. It's axiomatic that good 
growths and good roots mean good 
bloom spikes. Again, if you don't 
know how to divide and repot or what 
mix to use, find out. Instruction 
classes are held in many of the larger 
general nurseries, and any Orchid 
range will be glad to advise and illus- 



trate. There's no magic involved here, 
either, but there is a right way and a 
wrong way. If you are taking the 
trouble to repot and care for Cym- 
bidiums, it follows that you should 
be willing to take the trouble to do 
it properly as it should be done. For 
Cymbidiums in spike or bloom, the 
only cultural advice necessary is to 
continue a regular feeding and water- 
ing program, and to train and stake up 
the spikes so that they open the flowers 
upward without crowding. Maintain 
control of possible pests, especially 
snails and slugs since they can ruin 
overnight the flower you have been 
waiting months to see. Caution here 
— -insecticides can damage flowers if 
sprayed or dusted directly on them. 
Cover the bulbs, leaves and compost 
thoroughly, but avoid contact with the 
flowers. 

And finally, now that the plants are 
all attended to, some attention may 
be directed to the greenhouse. Warm 
weather will soon be here, anticipate it 
and get the Spring cleaning done. 
Glass needs washing down to clear it 
of algae and prepare it for summer 
shading; benches should be cleared 
and scrubbed down to clean wood; 
pots have an accumulation of salt de- 
posit and moss and ought to be 
brushed or steel wooled. A general 
housecleaning is in order, and will cer- 
tainly pay dividends in appearance. 
Remember the controls and equipment 
require a semi-annual check up. We 
have a bad habit of taking automation 
for granted, assuming that it is going 
to function forever with no attention 
from us, and sometimes learn to our 
sorrow that this is not the case. 

The garden chores taken to task, 
take time off and enjoy your Orchids. 
This is why you grow them, and the 
results of time spent with them should 
be a great satisfaction to you. 

See you at the Orchid Show on 
April 9th, 10th and 11th. 



FRANK FORDYCE ORCHIDS 

We specialize in ORCHID PLANTS for the hobbiest growers 

Blooming Size Plants _,. _-_, ,_-. 

$3.95 and up Phone 729-1284 

Orchid Supplies 

2500 Fire Mountain Drive, Carlsbad 



Visitors Welcome 

Open Tues.-Sat. 8-5 

Sun. 1-5 



Walter Andersen 
Nursery 

LARGEST SELECTION 
LANDSCAPE MATERIALS 

Nursery Stock and Garden Supplies 
for Beautiful Gardens 

We Specialize in Indoor Plants 

3860 Rosecrans San Diego 10 

Phone 296-6251 



APRIL -MAY, 1965 



21 



LA MESA NURSERY 

"Everything For The Garden" 

Now! 



FINE STOCK NO. 1 BARE-ROOT ROSES 

CONSULT HARVEY SHORT 
ON CAMELLIAS - SAT. AND SUN. P.M. 

Wilkensen's Stainless Steel 
Blades and Tools 

Bankamerica Card Delivery 
S & H Stamps 

8480 La Mesa Blvd. — 466-5703 



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Specializing in FINE COSMETICS 



ACE 



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820 West Washington St., 295-2131 

Prescription Pharmacists since 7925 



SAN DIEGO'S LARGEST 
NURSERY FACILITY 

. . . with complete, personalized at- 
tention to your every garden need. 

and tf latent 

LINDA VISTA RD. at MORENA BLVD. 
PHONE 297-4216 



J 



CULLIGAN 

KEN WALKER 

Serving La Jolla - Pacific Beach 

COMMERCIAL & RESIDENTIAL 
SALES • SERVICE 

AUTOMATIC SOFTENERS 

FILTERS 



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970 TURQUOISE • PACIFIC BEACH 



Fuchsias 

by Morrison W. Doty 

San Diego Fuchsia Society 



Our Calendar of Care becomes busy 
indeed with the advent of April. Al- 
though the pruning, essential for new 
flowering growth, will have been done 
as detailed in our last issue, and al- 
ready most of the propagation started 
from the resultant cuttings, much is 
yet to be done. Some leaf mold and 
weed-free steer manure may be worked 
into the soil around the bush, tree, or 
espaliered plants, even earlier than 
this, and about two weeks later, per- 
haps, one feeding of commercial fer- 
tilizer. As really hot days come on, a 
most important protection and in- 
surance against forgotten watering, is 
a good mulch such as peat, shavings, 
sawdust; something to provide cool 
dampness from the hot California sun. 
Sometimes even rocks are used as a 
cool garden mulch in this climate. 

With the great present popularity 
of Container gardening, we find 
special attention needed at this time 
of year, perhaps more than for plants 
in the ground. Basket plants will 
need new soil, replacing that which 
was washed away, and will need feed- 
ing and Fuchsias that have been in 
containers should be repotted, after 
trimming the roots some, if they are 
rootbound. All baskets or other con- 
tainers should be repaired or renewed, 
and a metal or roll-roofing liner in- 
side each one may save a plant if you 
forget to water enough in dry weather. 

After pruning, it is most important 
to pinch out the tips of new growth 
to shape the fuchsia plant into its 
proper type. The pinched tips will 
divide again and again to make more 
abundant bloom, and the resultant de- 
lay in blooming allows time for the 
plant to develop strong sturdy growth 
to resist pests and to flower profusely. 
When the proper shape and good 
growth have been attained, stop pinch- 
ing to allow time for the blossoms to 
form, for this is a rather slow process. 



MISSION HILLS NURSERY 

Southern Indica Azaleas — Fine Assortment of Colors 

Since 1924 We Give S&H Green Stamps Phone 295-2808 

1525 Fort Stockton Drive San Diego 3 



A mild insecticide spray and sharp 
water spraying should be begun bi- 
weekly if pests appear early. 

Regular feedings, two to four weeks 
apart, of a good fish-emulsion base 
plant food may well be begun within 
a month after the first Spring fertiliz- 
ing, and the watering increased as hot- 
ter days come on. Too much moisture, 
especially for cuttings and young 
plants has been called a cause of 
damp-off and poor propagation in re- 
cent Spring weather. One of the most 
successful wholesale Fuchsia growers 
in this area, Mr. Richard, of Hender- 
son and Richard, claims about 98% 
success in propagation this year partly 
by better moisture control, in produc- 
ing around 100,000 plants. Inciden- 
tally, it is to be hoped that he may 
help us with some things learned in 
growing Fuchsias in a future issue. 
But plants can be bought only from 
retailers. 

When choosing new Fuchsia varie- 
ties, or any plants for your garden, 
look for varieties best adapted to your 
own garden climate (which may vary 
greatly from the next canyon or knoll) 
and try to buy only types, kinds and 
colors according to a garden plan suit- 
able to your place. For instance, for 
a cold location, hardies such as the old 
Rose of Castille (often called Minne- 
sota) ; Brilliant, Lucky Strike, and 
others with purple in their pedigree. 
Hardies to withstand heat, drouth, 
even direct sun sometimes, include: 
Glendale, Rubeo, California, Sleigh- 
bells, and some of the cold hardies 
such as Brilliant and Rose of Castille. 

For a mound of color you may 
choose tall varieties for background 
like: Firefly, Aviator, Gypsy Queen, 
Chief, etc., with the lower-growing 
Patty Evans, Jules Daloges, Blue Gown 
or Countess of Aberdeen in front. The 
foreground might include Lord By- 
ron, Swingtime, Enchanted, Georgiana 
or many others, all beautiful basket 
varieties, well-known and easily ob- 
tainable. Besides the old standbys, 
the many new varieties of Fuchsias re- 
sulting from their present vogue of 
popularity will delight old and new 
gardeners alike. Shop for them, and 
exchange cuttings with garden friends. 



9? 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



Irises 



by James E. Watkins 

President, San Diego - Imperial Counties Iris Society 



Before we get into the busy goings 
on of the iris fancier during this sea- 
son, let me first correct or amplify an 
unfortunate recommendation in the 
last issue. Wherever I spoke of 
"manure" being added to the soil, care 
should be exercised that it is cow or 
dairy manure. Sunset magazine ran 
a lengthy article a few months ago 
explaining why, based on exhaustive 
tests made on steer manure bought 
from many sources along the West 
Coast. It was purchased from nurser- 
ies, service stations, discount houses, 
anywhere where it was sold, and at 
every kind of price. It was found 
there was little correlation between 
price or source as to quality, and all 
samples had varying amounts of salts. 
Here in Southern California soil sal- 
inity is a serious problem, and it is, 
of course, folly to add anything that 
will worsen the situation. The con- 
sensus of the tests was that the best 
obtainable steer manure is of ques- 
tionable value in any garden, the worst 
downright dangerous, and that it is 
far better to add nitrogen-treated saw- 
dust or other humus. This, of course, 
would apply to any kind of garden, 
not just to the raising of irises. 

Now is the season which the iris 
grower lives for, the peak of bloom, 
with dwarfs, intermediates, and aril- 
breds blooming heavily in April, 
closely followed by the tall bearded, 
the table iris, and the border iris 
throughout May. But it is also the 
time when we wish we could split up 
into a number of bodies so that we 
could see everything in everyone's gar- 
den, as well as in our own garden; 



Qr ahAm 



make tours into neighboring communi- 
ties, enter all the flower shows; decide 
what additions to make during the 
year, and (if we are hybridizers) get 
up early in the morning and gather 
that precious pollen before the thrips 
steal it. 

Fortunately some of these activities 
can be consolidated. Certainly there 
is no better way to pick out what we 
want to buy than to see what looks 
good in gardens in our own area. Re- 
member that when those startling color 
pictures appear in the expensively 
produced iris catalogs the best pos- 
sible bloom is photographed, exactly 
as is done in, let's say, a new rose 
catalog. Furthermore, we don't know 
whether that iris is going to like our 
Southern California climate. One 
commercial grower tells me that he 
received an order for plants includ- 
ing Truly Yours and Mary Randall, 
both high on the popularity polls and 
winners of the Dykes Medal, from a 
coastal gardener. Along with the 
order was a plea for advice as to why 
the gardener did not have much luck 
with raising iris. Well, I never have 
seen Truly Yours except in pictures, 
because it just doesn't want to bloom 
in this area, and although Mary Ran- 
dall will bloom, it certainly won't 
come up to a prize-winning standard. 
The same dealer tells also of the 
easterner visiting his gardens and look- 
ing at a long row of yellow and white 
blooms, remarking she had never seen 
Truly Yours blooming so beautifully. 
What she was looking at was Monte - 
cito, admirably adapted to Southern 
California. 



729-2030 



NURSERY 
^^ FLORIST 

Ralph & Hope Wrisley 



2715 Carlsbad Blvd. 
Carlsbad, California 



However, the irises you see at local 
flower shows and in gardens in our 
area are the ones you will likely suc- 
ceed with also, so visit all you can and 
take your notebook along. In San 
Diego the big show will be on May 
1 and 2 in the Conference Building 
in Balboa Park, where you will see 
hundreds of different varieties and 
types, along with a myriad of ideas 
on how to use irises as cut flowers. 
On the same week-end the Southern 
California Iris Society will have its 
show in the Los Angeles County Ar- 
boretum in Arcadia. There will, of 
course, be many general flower shows 
in the area, and most of these will 
have at least some irises. 

A splendid opportunity to visit 
some notable private and commercial 
gardens will be at the Region 15, 
American Iris Society annual meeting 
and garden tour in Riverside on April 
24 and 25. Registration should be 
made prior to April 13 and is open to 
non-members. Details can be obtained 
by writing Mrs. Clarence Joris, 1116 
"H" Street, San Bernardino, Califor- 
nia 92410. The gardens to be toured 
will include old favorites and the 
newest novelties in irises. The regis- 
tration fee includes breakfast, lunch 
and a banquet on April 24, free ad- 
mission to the Riverside Flower Show, 
and bus transportation to the various 
gardens in Riverside, San Bernardino, 
Perris, Loma Linda, and Yucaipa both 
days. 

Visit all the gardens you can, and 
be sure to follow common garden cour- 
tesy, avoiding billowing skirts, wildly 
swinging handbags, trampling on 
plants, and volunteer aid in house- 
keeping. The seed pod you break off 
may be the culminating effort of a hy- 
bridizer and throw his work back a 
year! 

Of course there are more things to 
be done than to admire and to day- 
dream about new additions to your 
garden. Cut off all bloom stalks close 



Q 



PILLEYS 
GARDENS 



i ► 

4 Visitors Welcome ► 

4 ► 

IRIS and DAYLILIES 

MANY SPECIALS 

Free Catalog — P.O. Bok 7 A 

Phone Woods Valley Rd. 

745-2580 Valley Center, Calif. 



APRIL -MAY, 1965 



23 



Roses 



by Carl Truby 

President, San Diego Rose Society 



While rose growers in most of the 
nation are starting to prune their 
bushes and deciding on which new 
bare-root bushes to buy, the San Diego 
area grower is picking his best blooms. 
Local rose people prune their bushes 
between mid-December and mid-Janu- 
ary and usually, depending on the 
weather, the rose bush will be in full 
bloom 80 to 100 days from date 
pruned. These first blooms are the 
best of the year for several reasons. 
The bush has had several weeks rest, 
the insect and fungus problems haven't 
yet started, and the weather is best 
for bloom and foliage color. 

April Good Rose Month 

The 38th annual Spring Rose Show, 
"Melody of Roses," will be held in 
the Conference and Recital Buildings 
on Saturday and Sunday, April 17th 
and 18th, 1965. The members of the 
San Diego Rose Society will sponsor 
the show. However, the public is in- 
vited to enter blooms and arrange- 
ments in all but a few of the classes 
as noted on the show schedule. 

A brief rundown on show rules for 
specimen blooms are: All classes open 
to amateurs who grow their own roses 
in their own gardens — containers will 
be furnished except in the arrange- 
ments sections; entries will be accepted 
between 7:00 and 10:30 a.m. on 
Saturday, April 17th; American Rose 
Society Rules for exhibiting and judg- 
ing will be followed. No entry fee 
will be charged. 

San Diego the Largest Show 

The San Diego Rose Show is the 
largest in number of blooms of any 
in the nation. Combining this fact 
with the beauty of our local blooms, 
the beauty of Balboa Park, and the 
cost of admission of only 50 cents 
and you have the Show bargain of the 
year. Added to this will be several 
fine displays from commercial organi- 
zations who will be glad to answer 
questions and help anyone who is hav- 
ing problems with his plants. 
New Trophy Offered 

Trophies valued at several hundred 
dollars will be offered this year as well 
as eight beautiful perpetual trophies. 
Added to the list of perpetual tro- 
phies will be the new Adeline Law- 
ton' perpetual trophy offered in the 



arrangement section for arrangement 
best depicting the theme of the show. 
This year's theme, "Melody of Roses," 
opens a vast span of ideas for beauti- 
ful arrangements as well as creating 
a lovely mood for our specimen 
blooms. 

Other trophies to be offered this 
year are: 

Queen of the show 

Princess of the show 

Sweepstakes 

Several Section trophies 

Perpetual trophies 
Forrest L. Hieatt 
E. O. Adams 
San Diego Rose Society 
Past Presidents 
J. J. Kenneally 
Adeline Lawton 

It's fun to grow roses that win tro- 
phies, beautiful roses and beautiful 
trophies go extremely well together. 



TABLE TOPIC TEA 

Mrs. Edward Penprase, representing 
the Floral Association, will enter an 
original luncheon table setting, at the 
fourth annual Table Topic tea, spon- 
sored by the Aurora Unit to the 
Auxiliary to the Salvation Army Booth 
Memorial Home and Hospital. 

The tea will be held in the House 
of Hospitality Auditorium on May 6th. 
from one to four p.m. to benefit the 
Home's library fund. More than thirty 
women's clubs will create topics in 
table decoration to be judged as: Most 
Beautiful; Most Original; Most Func- 
tional; and Most Popular. 



ARRANGEMENT MEMBERS 
Receive SOGETSU Certificates 
Mrs. Rose Canter, Accrediting 
Teacher of this winter's class in Ike- 
bana flower arranging, announces that 
two members, who have completed 
the requirement for one credit in the 
Sogetsu School of Flower Arranging, 
will receive their qualifying certificates 
signed by Mr. Sofu Teshigahara. 
founder of the Sogetsu School. Mrs. 
Loretta Crocker and Mrs. Martha 
Rosenberg are to be congratulated not 
only for their achievement, but also for 
their perseverence. 



WE GET THE DANDIEST FAN LETTERS . . . 

Like the one from Mrs. Fisher of mile high Denver, Colo. 

This past Spring Mrs. F. heard about COUNTRY SQUIRE 
ROSE FOOD, and was determined to try it. We shipped 
it and hoped it would work as well there as it does for 
San Diego Gardeners. 

Mrs. Fisher wrote to us as the first snows started to hit the 
Rockies, and said, ". . . You would be surprised to hear of all 
the prizes I have won in the Rose Shows. ... I was "King of 
The Show" in the Denver, the Arapahoe County and the Boul- 
der County Rose Shows. In the Boulder Show alone, I had 
Best Grandiflora, Best Three Hybrid Teas, Best group of Three 
Peace, and I won 9 blue ribbons, 1 red, 5 yellow and 1 white 
all out of 21 entries. . . ." 

Congratulations Mrs. Fisher, and thanks for helping us 
prove that COUNTRY SQUIRE ROSE FOOD grows prize 
winning roses. 

use COUNTRY SQUIRE 
FERTILIZERS 

BEST FOR YOUR WHOLE BLOOMIN' GARDEN! 

Made in San Diego 



APRIL - MAY, 1965 



25 



ART ENTERPRISES 

by Pharis 

ANNOUNCES: 

concentrated groups of 
SUMMER CLASSES 

Return engagement of: 
PROFESSOR OBATA 

celebrated instructor 

cf JAPANESE PAINTING 

MADAME OBATA 

highly regarded exponent 

of ORIENTAL 

FLOWER ARRANGEMENT 

LURA SMITH 

Lecturer and demonstrator 
at the famous Oakland 
Christmas Idea Show 
Well known teacher in the 
new field of 
Glass and Plastic 
RESIN ARTS 

Make reservations now 
Call 295-5837 



Send for brochure 
1578 West Lewis (Mission Hills) S.D. 3 






MINIATURE ROSES 

by Carl Truby 

The popularity of miniature roses 
has gained considerably during the 
past few years and nearly every rose 
hobbyist has at least one of these lit- 
tle trojans. The miniature rose seems 
to require less care than its bigger rela- 
tives yet blooms continuously with re- 
warding colorful flowers which last 
several days as cut blooms. 

In recent years the growers of min- 
iatures have created many new colors 
and types. The buyer may easily ob- 
tain a miniature rose in the exact color 
he wishes, and many colors are pres- 
ently available in climbing and tree 
varieties. Listed below are varieties 
that do well in the San Diego area 
and require a minimum amount of 
care. The average cost of miniature 
roses is $1.75 and this includes the 
newest introductions; climbing and 
tree varieties are more expensive. 

The most popular bush varieties are: 
June Time Pink 

Eleanor Coral Pink 

Little Buckaroo Velvet Red 

Yellow 

White 



Yellow Doll 
Easter Morning 



CAROLYN 
BEAUTY SHOP 

CALL 234-5344 

121 W. Juniper— Just off First Ave. Bus 

Convenient Parking 



The most popular tree varieties are: 
Bobolink Red 

Bit O' Sunshine Yellow 
Pink Cameo Pink 

Cinderella White 

Most popular climbing varieties are: 
Climbing Jackie Light Yellow 
Pink Cameo Pink 

Scarlet Ribbon Red 



G. S. JOHNSON ROSE NURSERY 

8549 MAGNOLIA AVENUE, SANTEE, CALIFORNIA 

Corner Magnolia & Prospect in Santee — On Highway 67 

19 years in same location 

Phone: 448-6972 



ROSE SPECIALISTS 



Bare Root Roses Available through April. 

CLOSED WEDNESDAYS 





CURTIS COLEMAN CO. REALTORS 

SINCE 1913 



SALES 



LEASES 



REAL ESTATE LOANS 



PROPERTY MANAGEMENT 



Suite 2100, United States National Bank Bldg. 
Centre City, San Diego 1, Calif. 233-6557 




Silver Tips 

Miniatures To Have Own 
Section In Show 

For the first time miniature roses 
will have their own section in the San 
Diego Rose Show. Section "N" will 
have 7 new classes as follows: 
1 specimen bloom 
1 Spray (3 blooms or buds) 
1 Spray (More than 3 blooms or 

buds) 
3 blooms different varieties 
Collection of separate miniature 

blooms on tray 
Collection of miniature roses in 

containers 
3 different miniature roses in 

containers. 

Two New Miniature 
Trophies Offered 

In keeping with the trend toward 
variety at the larger Rose Shows across 
the nation, the San Diego Rose So- 
ciety will add two new trophies this 
year in the Miniature department. 
One will be offered for "Best in 
Section "N" (classes 1 through 4) 
and Runner-up in Section "N" (classes 
1 through 4) . 

Things To Come 

Perhaps next year, or by 1967 for 
sure, the San Diego Rose Society will 
lead the way by expanding their sec- 
tion for Miniature Roses ever further 
to include, a class for climbing varie- 
ties only, a class for multiple-stems of 
one variety or mixed varieties, and 
color classes to include the newest 
blends and multicolors. 

Be sure to spend some time shar- 
ing the beauty to be found in Section 
"N" at the Spring Rose Show. Better 
still, enter your miniature blooms and 
allow everyone to share their beauty. 



26 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



Dahlias 

by Larry Sisk 

San Diego County Dahlia Society 



Dahlias at their best are so spec- 
tacular and breathtaking that many 
would-be growers think there is some- 
thing mysterious or difficult about their 
culture. 

Not so. They are about as easy to 
grow as glads, mums, roses, or carna- 
tions. It's easier to grow crabgrass 
and dandelions, but who wants them.-" 

Another wrong impression is that 
you have to have large beds for dahl- 
ias. True, some hobby growers have 
them in large beds, but more often 
dahlias are planted and cherished in 
average-sized yards or in small areas 
alongside the house. 

Dahlia blooms can be enjoyed from 
a single plant, or from a dozen, or 
from a hundred. You can raise good 
ones in whatever space you have, and 
chances are that the gardener with 
the fewest plants will raise better in- 
dividual blooms than the one with the 
greatest. The one with the fewest will 
give them more undivided care. 

Allow a space two to three feet 
square for each plant of the large or 
medium dahlia varieties. Pompons 
and other smaller varieties require 
only about 18 inches square. 

Most hobby growers who like them 
for exhibition plant their dahlias in 
rows 24 to 30 inches apart, but for 
one who is trying them for the first 
time or so, the plants can be placed 
wherever there is room, in singles, in 
rows, or in mass plantings. When 
planted in rows, spacing is 18 inches 
to 36 inches apart, depending on the 
size of the variety. 

Large flowers grow on large plants 
that require more room. And, to get 
large flowers, large varieties must be 
planted. You can't get the large 
blooms from roots of the small varie- 
ties, regardless of how much you fer- 
tilize or disbud. 

Right now is the time to plant dahl- 
ias. They do very well when planted 
from now until mid-June or early July. 
They will continue to bloom from 90 
to 100 days after planting until mid- 
November, or in the cold areas until 



frost, if kept watered, fed and free of 
insects. 

The soil should be turned to a 
depth of 12 to 18 inches. A spade of 
steer fertilizer can be mixed into the 
soil for each plant, and when placing 
the root a handful of bonemeal stir- 
red into the soil will help make the 
flowers better. 

Mark the location for each plant 
with a 1-by-l stake (or, even a broom- 
handle) four feet long or so. Dig a 
hole six to eight inches deep at the 
base of the stake. 

Place the dahlia root on its side two 
or three inches from the stake. Be 
sure the root has an eye or shoot on 
the crown, planting it with the eye up, 
near the stake. Cover the root and 
gently firm the soil. Water and keep 
the soil damp, but not wet, until the 
little plant breaks through the soil. 
After that, water when the top of the 
soil is dry, normally about once a week. 

When the plant has three sets of 
leaves, nip out the tip about the same 
as with carnations, mums, and other 



flowers. That makes the plant bush 
out. As the plant grows, use the stake 
for support, tying loosely as necessary. 

In addition to the watering, a regu- 
lar spraying schedule will prevent in- 
sects from bothering, and feeding 
about once every three or four weeks 
with a low-nitrogen fertilizer will keep 
the plant blooming. 

Disbud and disbranch to obtain the 
larger flowers. Usually there are three 
buds on each stem. From plants of 
all except the small varieties two of 
each trio of buds should be removed, 
leaving the center one to grow. The 
more buds and flowers left on each 
plant, the smaller the dahlias will be. 

To get the maximum size out of the 
largest varieties, each plant should be 
disbranched so that no more than 
three or four blooms are growing on 
the plant at once. 

Dahlia roots for all desired sizes 
may be obtained from nurseries, from 
seed catalogs, from dahlia specialists, 
or from other dahlia growers. For best 
results plant only named varieties. 
Some nurseries and the specialists also 
can supply plants. 

Members of the dahlia society wel- 
come beginning growers and prospec- 
tive members to society meetings in 
the Floral Building, Balboa Park, on 
the fourth Tuesday night of each 
month, and those with larger gardens 
are pleased to share roots with new 
members. At the April 27 society 
meeting, there will be one of the an- 
nual root swapping events at which 
visitors are welcome. 



BLUE RIBBON DAHLIAS 



DAHLIA PLANTING TIME IS HERE 

For the best in roots, plants, and seeds, send for COMSTOCK'S 
FREE 1965 CATALOG, listing 215 VARIETIES of highest quality 

PLUS planting instructions and cultural hints. 

Excellent selection of cut flower varieties. 

Roots, plants and seeds for sale through May 30th excepting 
Mondays and Tuesdays. 

COMSTOCK DAHLIA GARDENS 

145 Dahlia Drive Solana Beach, Calif. 92075 

P. O. Box 308 



APRIL - MAY. 1965 



EXOTICA NURSERY 

One block west of the stop light in 

SOLANA BEACH 

Bromeliads and Orchids 

House Plants a Specialty 

ON THE PLAZA — 755-1949 — OPEN DAILY 



POINT LOMA PHARMACY 

1105 Rosecrans St. 

223-7171 



Your Prescription Specialists 
Since 1935 



Three free deliveries daily: 

except Sunday & Holidays 
11:30, 2:30 and 4:30 

S & H Green Stamps 

featuring 

ELIZABETH ARDEN 

FABERGE 

LANVIN 

and Other 

Leading Brands 
of Fine Cosmetics 



BLUE PACIFIC 

NURSERY AND LANDSCAPE CO. Inc. 

"Serving All San Diego County" 

LANDSCAPE CONTRACTORS 

FREE ESTIMATES 

4876 Santa Monica — Ocean Beach 

Tel. 222-1151 



Camellias 

by William T. De France 

San Diego Camellia Society 



The camellia blooming season is 
getting near the end with the excep- 
tion of some of the late blooming 
varieties. I am sure we all enjoyed 
the lovely blooms this season and are 
looking forward to bigger and better 
blooms the next season. Camellias, 
like many other evergreen shrubs, 
must have a certain amount of care 
in order to grow healthy and produce 
an abundance of blooms the following 
season. This is the time of year to 
start giving our plants tender loving 
care in the areas of pruning, spraying 
to protect against insects, feeding, 
mulching and watering. 

PRUNING: 

Camellias can be pruned any time 
of the year without harmful effects 
on the shrub. However, the ideal time 
to prune is after the plants are through 
blooming and just before the first 
cycle of growth starts in the early 
spring. This would be the months of 
March and April in this area. 

Camellias will respond very favor- 
ably to heavy pruning, so don't be 
afraid to cut them back and thin out 
the inner branches if they need it. 
There are two basic reasons for prun- 
ing: (1) To shape the shrub to your 
liking and to improve its appearance 
for the particular area where it is lo- 
cated. (2) To cut out old and dead 
wood and thin out inner crossed 
branches, so air and sunlight can pene- 
trate through the plant. 

You should have an idea of the pre- 
ferred shape of the plant you desire 



country squire CAMELLIA FOOD 

Just released after two full growing years of 

successful tests at De France's Nursery, Cardiff, California 

6-10-8 formula, fortified with chelated Iron and Zinc. 

Rich fish concentrate. Contains NO CHLORIDE SALTS 

A real PLUS-VALUE camellia lovers will find invaluable. 

Use COUNTRY SQUIRE FERTILIZER 

BEST FOR YOUR WHOLE BLOOMIN' GARDEN 
At your NURSERYMAN'S NOW 



before starting and prune accordingly. 
For instance, if you have a tall spindly 
shrub and you want to make it more 
compact and bushy, this can be ac- 
complished to a certain extent by cut- 
ting the top branches back to within 
one-fourth inch of the previous growth 
cycle. You can tell growth cycles by 
the color of the wood. The last cycle 
of growth will be a lighter brown and 
the bark will have a smoother appear- 
ance. 

The older your camellias get the 
more pruning will be required to keep 
them healthy and encourage new, vig- 
orous growth. The amount of thinning 
will depend upon the variety and the 
length of time since it was last pruned. 
Some varieties are more compact and 
bushy growers than others and will 
require more pruning. Cut out all 
dead wood, old spindly wood, crossed 
branches and branches that are grow- 
ing toward the center of the shrub. 
The branches should be thinned out 
a sufficient amount so you can see 
through the plant. This will permit 
sunlight and air to penetrate through 
the plant which will assist in produc- 
ing new growth that will improve 
the appearance and produce more 
blooms the following season. 

SPRAYING: 

There are not too many insects that 
like camellia foliage as part of their 
diet. Red spider, thrips, scale, aphids 
and looper worms are the most com- 
mon pests, the latter two are the worst 
of the group. There are a number of 
good all purpose insecticides on the 
market; isotox and malathion have 
proven to be effective and are com- 
patible with camellias. You should 
consult a nurseryman in your area 
for his recommended action for an in- 
secticide for a particular insect. The 
spraying should be started in March 
and continued at 30 day intervals until 
flower buds start to open. 

FEEDING: 

Camellias should be fed as soon as 
they are through blooming or the new 
growth starts. March or April is a 
good time to start in this area and 
continue at four to six week intervals 
through October. There are a num- 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



ber of good fertilizers on the market 
which have been especially developed 
for camellias. There is a new fish base 
6-10-8 liquid camellia food with added 
chelated iron and other tracer ele- 
ments which was developed for the 
San Diego Camellia Society by a local 
fertilizing manufacturer. This camellia 
food has been field tested for the past 
two years on thousands of camellias 
with excellent results. The local nur- 
series will have this camellia food in 
stock, if not they can get it for you 
on request. It is much better to feed 
lightly and more often than it is to 
feed heavily at long intervals. You 
should never feed in excess of what 
the manufacturer calls for on the label. 

MULCHING: 

Camellias like to be mulched with 
a good, coarse material such as leaf 
mold, fir bark, peat moss, pine needles 
and a number of specially prepared 
mixes stocked at all nurseries by the 
manufacturer's trade name. 

The mulch should be applied around 
the base of the plant one or two inches 
thick. As the mulch material breaks 
down, it should be raked back and 
new material added. Be careful not to 
disturb the camellia surface roots when 
removing the decomposed mulch. 
Never build up a heavy layer or pack 
it down, as this would have the same 
effect as planting the camellia too 
deep. Camellias planted in sunny or 
windy locations will benefit more from 
mulching since the mulch will pre- 
vent excessive drying of the soil and 
will keep the root system cool. 

WATERING: 

Camellias like a moist soil, but not 
a water-saturated soil, over a long 
period of time. The plants should not 
be allowed to dry out completely 
through the root zone. However, very 
often the surface of the soil will ap- 
pear to be dry and by scratching the 
surface you may find it plenty moist 
just below the surface; if so, your 
plant does not need watering. 

Camellias like a high humidity and 
spraying the ground and foliage will 
be beneficial to the plant on dry, hot 
days. The foliage should be sprayed 
in the early morning or late after- 
noon to avoid burning the leaves due 
to sun rays on the wet foliage. The 
overhead spraying should only be 
enough to wet the foliage and not 
permit excessive water to drip to the 
base of the plant which could keep 
the soil too wet. When your plant 
needs watering, water deeply, which 
will help to keep the salts flushed 
through below the root zone. 



R 



igonias 



by Margaret M. Lee 



Now is the time to get busy in the 
garden. After resting for several 
months the plants are awakening for 
their annual spring miracle. 

The danger of frost or a freeze 
should be well past so the new growth 
on the plants is to be encouraged. 
With this in mind, a light feeding of 
a well-balanced fertilizer may be ap- 
plied. If, however, you have been 
feeding all year, a high nitrogen con- 
tent food would be excellent to use. 

Examine your pots for exposed roots 
and if this condition exists cover the 
roots with your regular potting mix. 
Covering the roots will encourage new 
growth and will suffice until the plants 
are growing more vigorously and will 
need to be shifted into larger pots 
or to be repotted. 

With the advent of the tender new 
growth, the advent of the insects oc- 
curs also. The pests have been resting 
and are ready to eat at this time, too. 
Start your control program of mala- 
thion for aphids, mealy-bug, scale, etc.; 
chlordane for ants, and your favorite 
product for snails and slugs. Mildew 
may be in evidence, depending upon 
weather conditions, so it would be 
wise to institute control of this, also. 

Fibrous type begonias may be trim- 
med lightly for shape and to encour- 



age the new growth but be careful 
not to cut back more than one third 
of a growing plant at any one time. 
Dispose of all dead wood, leaves, and 
dried bloom. Start new plants with the 
good branches trimmed from the par- 
ent plants. Clean sharp sand is a good 
rooting medium. 

Rhizomatous begonias should be 
blooming and this often occurs with 
very little foliage so do not repot this 
type until there is a good percentage 
of leaves and the blossoming is fin- 
ished. Most of the rhizomatous types 
grow best in shallow wide containers. 
Moss-lined wire baskets are very good. 

There is no magic formula for grow- 
ing beautiful plants, nor is there a 
magic potting mix. Each potting mix 
has to be tempered to the particular 
location of the grower, the basis of 
which is a light, porous mix which 
simulates the soil in which the be- 
gonias grow naturally in their native 
habitat. 



Garnet Nursery 

Open Daily — Free Delivery 
30 Day Accounts on Approved Credit 

488-3281 
530 Garnet Pacific Beach 



Ask your favorite nurseryman for 

• LOAMITE 

The Organic SOIL AMENDMENT that 
outperforms and outlasts all others 

and MILORGANITE 



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Complete Selection of 
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396 N. Highway 101, Encinitas ■ Phone 753-5192 ■ 1 Mile North of Encinitas Traffic Light 



APRIL -MAY, 1965 



29 



KB 

2) 



50 YEARS AGO IN CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



' mm 




TTTTTTT lllll l llllllllllllllll l l lll l lllll llllllllllllllll M ll l ll lll ll ll lllllllllllllllllllll Mllllllll lllllllll lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll nl lll M lllll r vN.. 



The City Beautiful Campaign to 
perfect plans for a bigger, better and 
more enduring movement for further 
beautifying this already lovely land 
of ours seems too evident to call for 
particular attention. Especially is this 
true to those of us who have watched 
the work grow as we have listened to 
the little intimate stories of success 
and failure from the hundreds of new- 
found nature lovers who for the first 
time in their lives are tasting the keen 
delight which comes from watching 
things grow. Huge armfuls of lovely 
blossoms have found their way back 
to City Beautiful Headquarters — 
"From the garden you made possible 
for me." 

For almost a full year, free distribu- 
tion of plants, cuttings and seeds have 
been made each week day. To each 
person applying, from four to six 
varieties of seed have been given, with 
as many different plants and cuttings. 
Rarely a day has come when the num- 
ber of applicants has fallen below one 
hundred. The records show hundreds 
of truck loads of plants and cuttings, 
with the little seed packets numbering 
into the hundreds of thousands, yet 
what does that tell of the healthy, 
happy moments spent in the great out- 
of-doors, preparing the soil, in plant- 
ing and caring for the little flowers- 
to-be, of the days of anticipation and 
the final joy in the blossoming time. 

So much the City Beautiful has 
done. The civic authorities have co- 
operated in their clean-up campaign 
— the banishing of unsightly vacant 
lots. The children of the schools 
have been interested, and in the cur- 
riculum, a study of plant life has been 
included and make an active factor. 
The slogan of the campaign, "A gar- 
den for every home," has become al- 
most a verity. But the very success of 
the first effort makes the need for the 
future the more apparent; the neces- 
sity of concerted effort on the part of 
every organization which has at heart 
the advancement of San Diego as a 
Home City; to extol her natural advan- 
tages and to defend them from ruth- 
less destruction; to work in harmony 



on some feasible plan for putting 
more trees upon her streets and de- 
vising some scheme of parking less 
kaleidoscopic than the one now gen- 
erally employed; and most of all, to 
drive home to the heart of every resi- 
dent of San Diego, the essential truth 
that love for the growing things, the 
encouragement of nature in her gifts 
to this beautiful city is not a side issue, 
a luxury of our Civic prosperity, but 
a fundamental factor in her growth 
and an absolute necessity to her suc- 
cess. 

Scattered among the throng that 
center their hopes on factory chim- 
neys, a forest of masts and the ac- 
companying smoke and smell, are a 
few dreamers who have heard of the 
harbor of Rio de Janeiro, of Ham- 
burg, of the Thames Embankment, 
and they have visions of a water park 
in the North Bay, a series of little 
islands, wonderful marine gardens, 
tied to the mainland by a beautiful 
arcade spanning the railroad tracks 
and reaching up to the Mission Hills. 
An architect has even drawn plans 
thus, and in spite of what crime may 
now be committed in the name of busi- 
ness development, the future must 
see this dream comes true because it 
is written in the mind that planned 
San Diego before even the Mission 
fathers taught the Indians to make 
mud bricks. 

It is with a feeling of relief that 
we heard the Park Superintendent 
give voice in public to the sentiment 
that whole sections of Balboa should 
never be touched, meaning that the 
wild growth should be encouraged and 
not improved out of existence. We 
of the West are growing out of a 
completely unwarranted contempt for 
our native growths, and lest any should 
be inclined to self gratulation over 
this change, let it be noted that the 
reason therefor is obviously the en- 
dorsement of these growths to Europe 
and the Eastern States. England and 
Germany have worked with our Cali- 
fornia poppy till seed can be obtained 
covering a wide range of color, and 
now France is working with our 



Ceanothus and had long ago done 
many things with lupines. 

To continue this subject of parks, 
the work accomplished during the last 
two years in Balboa is little short of 
miraculous considering the soil condi- 
tions. Many whole plots had to be 
excavated by blasting and soil hauled 
in, and the majority of trees are there 
by grace of giant powder. San Diegans 
should know and enjoy their park, 
and it would seem as if it were a 
legitimate part of the work of the 
park board to formulate a campaign 
to bring people and park closer to- 
gether. It is conceivable that a weekly 
excursion to points of special interest 
conducted by someone with the neces- 
sary knowledge of plant life and the 
ability to impart the same, would be 
very popular and worth while. Miss 
Sessions could make such a trip in- 
tensely interesting and instructive. It 
is no part of the scope of a gardening 
magazine to be discursive on business 
conditions but it may assume that 
pruning will be popular in civic ex- 
penses as well as in orchards. If the 
people are to be expected to look 
cheerfully on an interested appropria- 
tion for park purposes, they should 
be shown that they are getting their 
money's worth, and this we believe 
they certainly are. 

What air-castles one can build of 
the future of San Diego, with the 
flowers as the central feature. Trips 
to Palomar to view Rhododendrons 
and Azaleas in bloom; trips to the 
desert, to see the Cacti and desert 
flowers; trips to Ramona for wild 
lilacs, to Mesa Grande for cherries, 
and trips to Cuyamaca for pines and 
firs and fields of flowers. The auto is 
bringing the mountain tops and val- 
leys closer to us daily. 



PLEASE say: 



WHEN YOU BUY 



I SAW IT IN 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



30 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



San Diego Floral Association 

FLORAL BUILDING. BALBOA PARK 

(Under the sponsorship of 
The Park and Recreation Dept., City of San Diego) 

Third Tuesday, Floral Building, 8 p.m. 
Pres. Mr. Stanley W. Miller 444-8141 
1590 E. Chase Ave., El Cajon 

Flower Arrangers' Guild of San Diego 
First Thursday, Floral Building, 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. John Casale 465-099^ 

9372 Loren Drive, La Mesa 

AFFILIATE MEMBERS 1964 

Alfred D. Robinson Begonia Society 
Third Friday, Homes of Members, 10 a.m. 
President: Mrs. Clayton Lee 296-4845 

3911 St. James PL, S.D. 3 
Rep. Dir.: Mrs. Anuta Lynch 298-1400 
202 Lewis, S.D. 3 
Civic Center Garden Club 
Meets every Thursday 12m to 1 p.m. 
Garden House, Grape and 101 Civic Centei 
President: James Saraceno 274-2628 

3366 Lloyd St., S.D. 17 
Rep. Betty Elias 415-3385 

8121 Hudson Drive, S.D. 19 
General Dynamics Garden Club 
Second Wed., Floral Building, 7:30 p.m. 
President: Danny Blum 582-2983 

4730 Baylor Drive, S.D. 15 
Rep. Dir.: J. E. Henderson 274-1754 

3503 Yosemite, S.D. 9 
Men's Garden Club of San Diego Co. 
Fourth Monday, Floral Bldg., 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Ellsworth A. O'Bleness 223-0833 

4636 Niagara St., S. D. 7 
Rep.: Dr. J. W. Troxell 282-9131 

4950 Canterbury Drive, S. D. 16 
Mission Garden Club 
Meets First Monday 8 p.m. 
Barbour Hall, Pershing and University 
Pres.: Grace E. Brown 466-5638 

7865 Quince St., La Mesa 
Rep.: Julia Bohe 282-7422 

3145 No. Mt. View Dr., S. D. 16 
Organic Gardening Club 
Third Friday, Floral Building, 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Ferd I. Thebus 277-6899 

4511 Mt. Gaywas Dr., S. D. 17 
Rep Mrs. Hermine Hilkowitz 296-2282 
1756 Mission Cliffs Dr., S. D. 16 
Point Loma Garden Club 
First Friday, Silver Gate Savings & 
Loan Bldg., Ocean Beach, 10:00 a.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Clyde Neal 583-2776 

5459 Del Cerro Blvd., S.D. 20 
Rep.: Mrs. Jack White 222-1344 

1019 Cordova, S.D. 7 
San Diego Cactus & Succulent Society 
First Saturday, Floral Building, 2 p.m. 
Pres.: William H. Nelson 298-3349 

4253 Maryland St., S. D. 3 
Rep.: Dr. Ralph Roberts 273-9085 

2202 Wilbur St., S. D. 9 
San Diego Camellia Society 
Second Friday, Floral Building, 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Althea Hebert 466-3389 

8845 Country Club PL, Spring Valley 
Rep.: Mrs. Lester Crowder 295-5871 

3130 Second St., S.D. 3 
SD-Imperial Counties Iris Society 
Meets 3rd Sunday, Floral Bldg., 2:30 p.m. 
Pres: James E. Watkins 728-7337 

2925 Los Alisos Dr., Fallbrook 

Rep. Mrs. N. R. Carrington 453-3383 

6283 Buisson Street, S.D. 22 

S. D. Chapter Calif. Ass'n Nurserymen 

Second and Fourth Thursday, 7:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Charles Richards 422-3533 

930 Fifth Ave., Chula Vista 
Rep.: John Basney 273-4636 

4731 Conrad Ave., S.D. 17 
San Diego County Dahlia Society 
Fourth Tuesday, Floral Building, 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Victor Kerley 224-1884 

3765 James St., S.D. 6 
Rep.: Mrs. R. M. Middleton 296-3246 
3944 Centre St., S. D. 3 



San Diego County Orchid Society 
First Tuesday, Floral Building, 8 p.m. 
Pres.: Byron H. Geer 222-2044 

3370 Talbot St., S.D. 6 
Rep.: Byron H. Geer (above) 
San Diego Fuchsia Society 
Second Monday, Floral Building, 8 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Charles Williams 224-5229 

1094 Devonshire, S. D. 7 
Rep.: Mrs. Walter Bunker 281-5027 

4721 Bancroft, S.D. 
San Diego Rose Society 
Third Monday, Floral Building, 8 p.m. 
Pres.: Carl F. Truby 422-3350 

1035 Monserate Ave., Chula Vista 
Rep.: Mrs. Felix White 264-4440 

5282 Imperial Avenue, S.D. 14 

SOUTHWESTERN GROUP, JUDGES' COUNCIL 

California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
First Wed., Floral Bldg., 10:30 a.m. 
Chairman: Mrs. C. W. Benson 274-1626 
3640 Crown Point Dr., S.D. 17 

OTHER GARDEN CLUBS 

American Begonia Society 

San Diego Branch 

Fourth Monday, Barbour Hall, University 

& Pershing, 8 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Leah Jones 284-2514 

3734 40th St., S.D. 5 

San Miguel Branch 

First Wednesday, Youth Center 
Lemon Grove, 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. J. W. Lowry 463-4762 

7452 Roosevelt, Lemon Grove 
Carlsbad Garden Club 
First Friday, VFW Hall, Carlsbad, 
1:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Warda Bond 
V.F.W. Hall, Pio Pico & Oak St., Carlsbad 
Chula Vista Fuchsia Club 
Second Tuesday, Norman Park Recreation 
Center, 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mr. Lester Gibson 422-7642 

1234 Second Ave., Chula Vista 
Chula Vista Garden Club 

Meets Third Wednesday, 1:30 p.m. 
C. V. Woman's Club Bldg, 357 G St., C.V. 
Pres.: Mrs. W. R. Ellis 422-9467 

1065 Las Bavios Ct., Chula Vista 
Clairemont Garden Club 
Meets Third Tuesday, 9:30 a.m. 

Place announced at each meeting. 
Pres.: Mrs. Stanley Fletcher 276-2520 
3090 Chicago St., S. D. 17 
Coronado Floral Association 
Meets Third Wednesday, 8 p.m. 
Christ Church Parish Hall, Coronado 
Pres.: Comdr. Phillip H. Dennler 

339 B Ave., Coronado 435-3337 
Cross-Town Garden Club 
Third Monday, Barbour Hall, University 
& Pershing, 8 p.m. 
President: Charles Williams 284-2317 
4240 46th, S.D. 15 
Crown Garden Club of Coronado 
Fourth Thursday, Red Cross Bldg., 1113 
Adella Lane, 9:30 a.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Olin W. Jones 435-8938 

831 Olive Ave., Coronado 92118 
Delcadia Garden Club 
First Wednesday, Encinitas Union 

Elementary School, 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Edwin C. Pickett 753-3890 
1068 Devonshire, Encinitas 
Dos Valles Garden Club (Pauma Vly.) 
Second Tues., Members Homes, 1:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Ken Chapman 742-3381 

Pauma Valley, 92091 
Escondido Garden Club 
Third Fri., Women's Club House, 1:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Leonard H. Cooper 744-0550 
1011 W. Encinitas Rd., San Marcos 
Eva Kenworthy Gray Br. (Begonia) 
2nd Sat., 1:30 p.m., Seacoast Hall, Encinitas 
President: Walter Watchorn 722-3501 
1450 Hunsaker, Oceanside 



Fallbrook Garden Club 
Last Thurs., Fallbrook Woman's Club- 
house, 1:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Tom John 728-7423 

152 Emilia Lane, Fallbrook 
Grossmont Center Garden Club 
Second Monday, Orange Tree Rm. Audi- 
torium — -10 a.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Lowell E. Elson 469-8009 
3451 Calavo Drive, Spring Valley 
Hips and Thorns (Old Fashioned Roses) 
Meets three times yearly. 
Pres.: Roy C. Lawton 422-1775 

719 First Ave., C.V. 
Imperial Beach Garden Club 
2nd Tues., So. Bay Com. Center, 1:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Leonor Gish 424-7182 

630 Alabama, Imperial Beach 
Lakeside Garden Club 
2nd Mon., Lakeside Farm School, 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. W. R. Kuhner 443-3163 

P. O. Box 561, Lakeside 
La Mesa Woman's Club (Garden Sec.) 
Third Thursday, La Mesa Woman's Club, 
1:45 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Harry K. Ford 583-4320 

4851 Lorraine Dr., S.D. 15 
Lemon Grove Woman's Club 
(Garden Section) 
First Tuesday, Lemon Grove Woman's 
Club House, 1 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Gladys Short 

8124 Alton, Lemon Grove 
National City Garden Club 
Third Wednesday, National City 

Community Bldg., 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Roy W. Daniels 282-0370 

2462 Tuberose St., S.D. 5 
O. C. It Grow Garden Club 
Second Wednesday, S. Oceanside 

School Auditorium, 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. J. A. Johnson 722-2792 

Rosicrucian Fellowship 
P.O. Box 713, Oceanside 
Pacific Beach Garden Club 
Meet second Monday, 7:30 p.m. 
Community Club House, Gresham 
and Diamond Sts., Pacific Beach 
Pres.: Mrs. Ethel Hansen 273-3501 

3504 Ethan Allen, S.D. 17 
Poway Valley Garden Club 
2nd Wed. 9:30 a.m. Community Church 
Pres.: Mrs. Don Eddy 748-2872 

12844 Montauk St., Poway 
Rancho Santa Fe Garden Club 
Second Tuesday— Club House, 2:00 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Neil J. Randol 756-1603 

Rancho Santa Fe 
San Carlos Garden Club 
Fourth Tues., Homes of Members, 1 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Russell Loer 465-2172 

6762 Jackson Drive, S. D. 19 
San Dieguito Garden Club 
Third Wednesday, Seacoast Savings 
Building, Encinitas, 10 a.m. 
President: Mrs. Waldo Vogt 755-4772 
773 Barbara Ave., Solana Beach 
Santa Maria Valley Garden Club 
Second Monday, Ramona Women's Club 
House, 5th and Main, 9:30 a.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. Ara D. Sprague 789-0796 
Rt. 1, Box 947, Ramona 92065 
Springhouse Garden Club 
Third Thursday, Porter Hall, Univ. & 
La Mesa, 7:30 p.m. 
President: Mr. R. M. Frodahl 469-1933 
3852 Avocado, La Mesa 
Sweetwater Garden Club (adults) 
Second Monday: Meets at home of Tem- 
porary President, 7:30 p.m. 
Temp. Pres.: Cleoves Hardin 469-3038 
9195 Harness Rd., Spring Valley 
Sweetwater Junior Garden Club 
First Monday, 7:30 p.m. Meets at home of 
Temporary President 
Temp. Pres.: Cleoves Hardin 469-3038 
9195 Harness Rd., Spring Valley 
Vista Garden Club 
First Fri., Vista Rec. Center, 1:00 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. W. L. Larsen 

320 Mar Vista Dr., Vista, 92083 



House 



Garden 
Show 



sponsored by 

SAN DIEGO 
BUILDING 
CONTRACTORS 
ASSOCIATION 




ENTERTAINMENT FEATURE: 

The sensational 
Ice Extravaganza 

"SPICE ON ICE 

A complete, colorful Ice Show on the 

Stage of the Exhibit Hall. 

Several performances day and night. 



## 



Wednesday, April 21 
thru Sunday, April 25 
in San Diego's 
new downtown 
COMMUNITY CONCOURSE 

100,000 square feet of fascinating 

Garden and House Displays. 

A huge House and Garden "Idea Mart" 

featuring everything and anything having 

to do with inside and outside garden and 

household products, accessories and new ideas. 





■%&a^ 




OPEN 

6 p.m. Wed., April 2 I 
thereafter I -10 p.m. 

ADMISSION 

Adults 85c 

Children under 12 40c 

Children under 6 Free 




LARGEST HOUSE AND GARDEN SHOW IN SAN DIEGO'S HISTORY